Resource Hacker Torrent Archives

Resource Hacker Torrent Archives

Resource Hacker Torrent Archives

Resource Hacker Torrent Archives

  1. Windows
  2. Development & IT
  3. Resource Hacker

A free resource editing tool for 32bit and 64bit Windows

Ressource Hacker is a complete resource editing tool that is free, it doesn’t have unwanted notifications, and it doesn’t have adverts. It is a resource editing tool that may be used for viewing, compiling, decompiling and recompiling your resources. It does all of this for all popularly known 64bit and 32bit Windows executables.

Not as difficult as it first appears

When you open the Ressource Hacker program, you will see a very simple GUI. At first glance, it may look familiar, but it clearly has numerous sections and functions that you are going to need to research. Do not be dissuaded by your first impression because the Ressource Hacker website features step-by-step guides on how to use the tool. If you look over the tutorials, much of what you see will start to make a lot of sense. This tool is able to open any type of Windows executable, such as .exe, .dll and so on. That means that you are able to modify or delete these files at will. The tool allows you to edit resource files (.res) and compile script files (.rc).

Nice for pulling apart your programs

Ressource Hacker is another freeware tool you can add to your programming and coding toolkit. The ability to edit files on their own offers a host of possibilities from tweaking open source programs to altering files on GOG.com games so you can cheat when you play them. If you have security software that judged downloads based on user reputation, such as Norton Internet security, then download the file as a zip file, extract it, and mark it as safe or okay when your security software prompts you.

PROS

  • A very lightweight and free program
  • The tutorials show you how to use the program

CONS

  • A manual or full user guide would have been nice
  • It is pretty ugly looking
Free Downloadfor Windows
In Softonic we scan all the files hosted on our platform to assess and avoid any potential harm for your device. Our team performs checks each time a new file is uploaded and periodically reviews files to confirm or update their status. This comprehensive process allows us to set a status for any downloadable file as follows:
  • Clean

    It’s extremely likely that this software program is clean.

    What does this mean?

    We have scanned the file and URLs associated with this software program in more than 50 of the world's leading antivirus services; no possible threat has been detected.

  • Warning

    This software program is potentially malicious or may contain unwanted bundled software.

    Why is the software program still available?

    Based on our scan system, we have determined that these flags are possibly false positives.

    What is a false positive?

    It means a benign program is wrongfully flagged as malicious due to an overly broad detection signature or algorithm used in an antivirus program.

  • Blocked

    It’s highly probable this software program is malicious or contains unwanted bundled software.

    Why is this software program no longer available in our Catalog?

    Based on our scan system, we have determined that these flags are likely to be real positives.

We’d like to highlight that from time to time, we may miss a potentially malicious software program. To continue promising you a malware-free catalog of programs and apps, our team has integrated a Report Software feature in every catalog page that loops your feedback back to us.

Flag any particular issues you may encounter and Softonic will address those concerns as soon as possible.

App specs

  • License

    Free

  • OS

    Windows 95

  • Downloads

    126K

  • Language

    English

  • Version

    5.1.7

  • Latest update

    Apr 3, 2020

  • Developer

    Angusj | More Programs (6)

  • User rating

    7/10   (148 votes)

  • Older versions

Report Software
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
, Resource Hacker Torrent Archives

Reverse engineering tools review

Review of reverse engineering (i.e. software reversing) tools. Advantages and disadvantages, alternative solutions.

Reverse engineering or software reversing, is a set of techniques use to analyze closed source software in order to extract seemingly unavailable information, e.g. algorithms, hidden access passwords (e.g. to databases), information on how certain files are encrypted, and so on.

Reverse engineering is used for example in the fields of software analysis for potential security vulnerabilities (exploitation), malware analysis (antivirus developers) or software and games localization.

Advanced software analysis requires the knowledge of examined files structure, so most often a knowledge of executable files formats is required, Portable Executable for Windows system or ELF format for Linux type systems. It is also required to know basis of assembler for 32 and 64 bit platforms, in order to understand properly compiled code in closed-source software, its structure and widely used conceptions and software constructions transformed into binary data.

Even having appropriate knowledge, we will not be able to use it without proper tools. In this article, I'd like to present dedicated tools, used in reverse engineering, divided into categories. The majority of the dedicated tools, divided into categories presented here, qualify as a material for separate articles; however, it was my idea to present as many types of software as possible to show a variety of uses.

Complicated character of reverse engineering software and the process of its creation is often connected with the fact that those programs are also expensive, but I tried to present alternative solutions and free equivalents of presented examples.

Identifiers

There is a wide variety of both programming languages and compilers. Apart from applications created in script languages, we can differentiate applications compiled to the processor's native code. Apart from that, there is a number of methods of protecting applications and their resources, and all of that affects the final result of binary file image on disk.

If we are not sure what the software that we are looking at was created with, as we have no expertise in distinguishing characteristic features in compiled files (section names, imported libraries, etc.), using identification (or detectors), tools that have signature base of popular compilers, program and cryptographic libraries or application security systems, is worth trying. A quick analysis will let us decide what our next step should be (e.g. unpacking the application)

Detect It Easy

DIE detector has a database of most popular security systems, including exe-packers, exe-protectors as well as signatures of popular compilers and linkers. Additionally it has a simple built-in script language, that allows us to add new signature definitions quickly. A PE executable file structure viewer is also available.

Websitehttp://ntinfo.biz
LicenceFreeware
Advantages
  • Built-in script language
  • PE file structure viewer
  • Plug-ins system
  • Updated regularly
  • Plug-ins for HIEW i CFF Explorer editors
  • Windows, Mac OS X and Linux versions
Disadvantages
Alternatives

ProtectionID

Detector ProtectionID was created to detect games security systems. It has a vast base of signatures from all possible security systems, compilers, and linkers. Even though user interface may not be the best looking, it does the job perfectly and is updated very often.

Websitehttp://pid.gamecopyworld.com
LicenceFreeware
Advantages
  • Large signature base
  • Updated very often
Disadvantages
  • Hardly intuitive interface

YARA GUI

YARA GUI is a Windows UI frontend for the popular binary pattern matching library and format called YARA.

Disassemblers and decompilers

With knowledge about what we are dealing with or, to be precise, what programming language and compiler this application was created with, we begin analysis in disassembler or decompiler. It is their task to analyze compiled, binary file and display its code and structure in a way easy for a human to understand.

Thanks to the process of disassembling and decompiling we will know all the functions of the application, what text strings are inside and what fragments of code references to them, what outside functions of the operating system are used by the application or which functions are exported (e.g. in the case of DLL dynamic libraries).

Disassemblers job is to depict application's code in the for of low-level assembler, so if analyzed software was written in C++, Delphi, Visual Basic or any other high-level language compiled to native code, the disassembler will show us its object code in the form of x86 or x64 assembler code.

Decompilers are able or try really hard to recreate original high level code from the code of compiled applications. As you can guess, recreating a high level language code, e.g. C++ with recognition of data structures, types and construction of programming language from compiled code of assembler is a very complicated process, so the amount of tools that allow such action is very small and if they are good, they are in the same time very expensive.

Decompilers can be divided basing on categories of software that they are able to analyze. Compilers of languages like e.g. C# (.NET Framework family), Visual Basic, Java generate object code in the intermediate form, meaning that this code is not directly executed by processor like x86 code, it is a pseudo code (so called P-Code), that is executed by a virtual machine of those programming systems (to run we need e.g. .NET Framework or JVM installed).

Such output code, because of its simplicity and most information stored in the form of pseudo instructions and metadata, resulted in the fact that decompiling in such cases is much more simple than decompiling x86 or x64 code. This caused creation of many dedicated decompilers, that became a nightmare of programmers writing in those languages, as it was very easy for anyone to take a peek at unprotected software, practically it's the version with source code wide open.

That was short introduction, now it is time for a list of most popular disassemblers and decompilers and their usage examples.

IDA and Hex-Rays

IDA that is Interactive DisAssembler in an undpisupted king among tools used in reverse engineering. IDA is a disassembler and debugger with built-in code analysis for over 60 types of processors. It has its own script language, large base of signatures of the most popular programming libraries as well as support for plug-ins that additionally enhance functionality e.g. by support for Python scripts.

The most known and valued plugin for IDA is Hex-Rays decompiler, that supports decompilation of x86, x64 and ARM codes, which is invaluable analysis tool.

IDA also has built-in debuggers for many hardware platforms, which makes this a perfect multitool for analysis of various executable files.

Websitehttps://www.hex-rays.com
LicenceCommercial from 449 EUR and free demo version.
Advantages
  • Supports large numbers of processor types
  • Built-in signatures of popular programming libraries
  • Large configuration possibilities
  • Built-in debuggers
  • Plugins system
  • Script language
  • Windows, Mac OS X and Linux versions
Disadvantages
  • Price
  • Lack of good, free alternative solutions
Plugins

Ghidra new

Ghidra is a new and free tool directly from the US intelligence agency NSA for the disassembly and decompilation of binary applications.

One of the most outstanding features of Ghidra is the built-in decompiler, which in some cases, such as ARM code analysis, can handle code reconstruction much better than the HexRays decompiler.

It may not be entirely up to the functionality of HexRays at the moment (remember that Ghidra is a new project), but tools such as decompilers require a lot of work and it is rare to see a new product that someone offers for free.

Websitehttps://ghidra-sre.org/
LicenseApache License 2.0
Advantages
  • Free license!
  • Supports large numbers of processor types
  • A decompiler that sometimes performs much better than that of HexRays
  • The ability to collaborate several people on the same project
  • Plugin system and its own API interface
  • Windows, Mac OS X and Linux versions
Disadvantages
  • Slightly outdated interface
  • Controversy over the very fact that it was released by the NSA (some will sniff out a conspiracy everywhere)
Plugins

.NET Reflector

When you must face analysis of software created in a programming language based on .NET Framework, e.g. C# or VB#, .NET Reflector decompiler will prove invaluable help. With its help, you will be able to quickly and efficiently take a peek at application's structure and code.

Reflector's big advantage is the fact that it has a small but very useful plugin base, with available, for example a plugin that allows recreating of the whole project for Visual Studio, from decompiled application. In addition, integration with Microsoft Visual Studio allows for simultaneous debugging of own code and code of closed libraries.

Because of simplicity of decompiling programs created for .NET Framework, many security tools were created, of course we are talking here about obfuscators that remove meta data from compiled programs, are able to modify IL code, encrypt text strings etc. If we come across such a program, we should familiarize ourselves with de4dot deobfuscator, that is able to automatically remove protections used by dozens of obfuscator types.

dnSpy new

A real workhorse for .NET decompilation, with built-in IL code editor and debugger. Above all of that, it's free with intuitive and modern interface design.

Websitehttps://github.com/0xd4d/dnSpy
LicenceGNU GPL v3
Advantages
  • Excellent work speed
  • Simple IL code editor
  • Built-in debugger
  • Modern look
Disadvantages

Java Decompiler

JD-GUI or Java Decompiler is a decompiler for Java applications, hence its name. It allows for viewing of compiled units code*.class or whole *.jar bundles.

It contains very useful search engine with filters that allow for searching by names, types, constructors, fields, methods and text strings.

Apart from stand alone application there are also plugins for programming environment Eclipse and IntelliJ IDEA, that allow for viewing code of compiled modules.

If you've ever used or you keep using well-known decompiler JAD (that was discontinued in 2001) then it's about time for an update, not only does JD-GUI support new elements of Java language, but also navigation over decompiled project is very easy and fun.

It also needs to be mentioned that, just like with .NET applications, that have been protected with obfuscators, Java applications can be protected and then decompiler functioning is limited or even impossible.

Websitehttp://jd.benow.ca
LicenceFreeware
Advantages
  • Intuitive navigation over decompiled code
  • Plugins for Eclipse and IntelliJ IDEAenvironment
Disadvantages
  • No support for protected application (no deobfuscator)
  • No disassembly to IL in case of finding errors

JustDecompile

Free alternative for commercial.NET Reflector developed by Telerik known for UI components. Free doesn't mean worse, it has built-in reference search engine, generating projects from decompiled sources ability as well as support for plugins, including de4dot deobfuscator plugin.

ReFox

Decompiler for applications created with database programming environment Visual FoxPro from Microsoft. This is a very niche solution for equally niche environment, but there are no alternative solutions that would allow for analysis of those application and those that do exist have been discontinued and don't support latest versions of VFP applications. ReFox allows for decompiling of classes, viewing forms and built-in data.

Website

http://www.refox.net

LicenceCommercial from 290 EUR and demo version.
Advantages
  • Decompiling of classes
  • Form viewer
  • Restoration of Visual FoxPro projects
Disadvantages
  • A bit outdated interface
  • Sometimes can't handle decompiling of code

VB Decompiler

Applications created with Visual Basic 5 and 6 are all in the past now. However, internal structure of code based on P-Code was a cradle for .NET technology and from the very beginning it's been causing problems with code analyze, as there were no dedicated tool for its analyze. We can say that VB Decompiler was created a bit too late for the market's needs, but is irreplaceable when analyzing Visual Basic applications (EXE, DLL as well as OCX controls) compiled to P-Code (Visual Basic also allowed from compiling to x86 code).

Websitehttps://www.vb-decompiler.org
LicenceCommercial from 99 EUR, as well as lite version.
Advantages
  • View on code forms and events
  • Plugins system
  • Disassembly of native code x86
Disadvantages
  • Limited navigation for decompiled code
Alternatives

IDR

Disassembler and decompiler IDR or Interactive Delphi Reconstructor is a tool meant only for application analysis in popular Delphi environment. It is a very useful tool comparing to e.g. IDA because it can analyze internal structures of Delphi application, has built-in form viewer, that allows for fast and easy finding of events assigned to controls on the form (e.g. button1.OnClick). IDR has vast databases of signatures of standard Delphi environment libraries in all available versions, so in output deadlisting we will see friendly function names.

Websitehttp://kpnc.org/idr32/en/
LicenceFreeware with optional paid current copy (unknown terms and conditions, author couldn't be contacted).
Advantages
  • Delphi form viewer with controls events browser
  • Export of map with names of functions and variables (e.g. for IDA or debugger)
  • Built-in signatures of all versions of Delphi environment
Disadvantages
  • Irregular updates
  • Unclear terms of access to latest versions

Debuggers

Every programmer sooner or later gets to know the functioning of a debugger in his favourite programming environment. Thanks to debugger we are able to track application running in real time, see how instructions affect contents of memory or variables and detect potential errors. However debugging of our own software, when we have access to information about source code and usually debug high-level code, straight from programming environment, is a piece of cake compared to debugging of application without access to source code. This is where dedicated debuggers, with advanced analysis of binary application structures, come in handy, but their use requires knowledge of low-level languages as well as basis of functioning of processor, for which this application was compiled.

OllyDbg

This is de facto a standard debugger for Windows in the world of reverse engineering (alongside built-in debugger for IDA disassembler). It has capabilities of application code analysis and allows for interference with almost every aspect of application running.

Other interesting functions include OllyDbg that allows for conditional code tracing, has vast plugins database, including those hiding its presence from anti-debug methods (Phant0m plugin), or plugins that allow for controlling of debugger running from the script level (ODbgScript plugin), while those scripts, most often used for unpacking of unprotected applications, come in hundreds.

Popularity of OllyDbg is obvious with the fact, that no other debugger, including legendary SoftICE system debugger has had so many plugins and modified versions like OllyDbg. It is interesting that a special version OllyDbg was created under the name of Immunity Debugger with built-in Python script support, meant for analyzing malware and creating exploits

There are currently two versions of OllyDbg, old with number 1.10, that has the most extensions and new version 2.01 that is becoming more and more popular. It is good news that a new 64-bit version is being developed because of the popularity of 64-bit operating systems.

x64dbg new

x64dbg are basically two debuggers, one dedicated for 64 bit software debugging and second for 32 bit applications. It features modern interface, plenty of configuration options, internal engine based on modern programming libraries like TitanEngine, Capstone Engine, Keystone Engine.

Number of supported features is really impressing, plugins, built-in scripting language, Yara signatures scanning, built-in decompiler and many more. And it's development is very active. Taking the fact that 64 bit OllyDbg never left the development stage, x64dbg has become de facto standard debugger for 64 bit applications.

DILE

Debugger for .NET Framework applications. It is quite a robust tool, but sometimes invaluable. It looks a bit like Visual Studio built-in debugger, I'm mentioning it only because it is one of very few debuggers for .NET applications without access to source codes, there are also plugins for .NET Reflector for the purpose of debugging (Deblector plugin).

Hex editors

If you have analyzed your application in disassembler, traced its running in debugger, there may be a need to interfere with program code in order to input corrections or to change some text strings, fix values or other information included in application's binary file.

For that purpose hex editors are used. At times when I used to read games magazine Top Secret, I associated hex editors only with save games modification, as readers were sending numerous offsets (addresses in a file) as well as values that needed to be changed in save files, e.g. to get a certain amount of cash or other resources in the game.

There are many hex editors on the market, with numerous different functions and applications, like e.g. built-in view over data structure (meaning that this hex editor can visually display for example bitmap elements or internal structure of exe file). An example of such an editor is e.g. well known WinHex, that is used in data retrieval (it contains built-in support for many system files), however, in my opinion, it is not very good for works connected with 'digging' in application's binary files, despite the fact that it has appropriate functions.

HIEW

This is my number one for hex editors, I cannot imagine my work without it. It is seemingly an old console application, but in reality it is a true beast. HIEW (by Hacker’s View) is a hexeditor, disassembler that supports architecture of x86, x64, ARM V6 processors, it also supports NE, LE, PE/PE32+, ELF/ELF64 files. This program has vast user database has been developed since 1991 and updates are regular.

Thanks to HIEW, we are able not only to edit binary file data but if that is an application, also its code. Built-in disassembler allows for navigation over the code and its functions as well as to easily modify existing instructions with the help of built-in assembler, which means that you don't have to know hex codes by heart. Instead, it is enough to write e.g. and HIEW will automatically compile that instruction and insert it into binary file.

HIEW is also able to repeatedly replace tools like IDA, if we have a simple task to do, its greatest advantages are its ability to operate very fast and built-in code analysis and direct modification options.

Hex Workshop

Windows hex editor with many useful options, file comparison, bit operations on code blocks, generating checksums, contains structure view for the most popular types of files.

Websitehttp://www.bpsoft.com
LicenceCommercial from 89.95 USD and time-limited version.
Advantages
  • Advanced bit operations on data blocks
  • Possibility of disc editing
  • Built-in checksum and cryptographic shortcut calculator
  • Automatic search for all text strings
Disadvantages
  • Messed up graphic interface
  • Expensive, compared to alternatives
Alternatives

HxD

Free hex editor with basic functions and options like edition, search, file comparison. It allows for simultaneous work with multiple files. It is also possible to open memory of different processes and gain direct access to discs.

Websitehttp://mh-nexus.de/en/hxd/
LicenceFreeware
Advantages
  • Simplicity
  • Simultaneous editing of multiple files
  • Ability to edit memory processes and disk data
  • Data export to format of programming files
  • Built-in checksum and cryptographic shortcut calculator
Disadvantages
  • No advanced modification options (like e.g. XOR operations on data blocks)
  • Minimalistic interface
Alternatives

Resource editors

Characteristic feature of Windows applications is the fact all resources like icons, images, forms, localized texts, as well as other information, can be saved in PE file structure, within a special area called resources. Those data are saved when linking. As all application files are saved in one EXE or DLL output file, if there is a need to change those information and if their size is unchanged, we will be able to modify them using hex editor, however, if we need to add new data or set different that have a larger size (e.g. longer text or another image), because of the structure of those data we will have to use proper resource editor.

Apart from modifications in application's resources, resource editors are also used just for taking a peek what additional data are stored in the application's file.

Resource Hacker FX

Resource Hacker used to be one of the most popular resource editors, but it has been discontinued for a long time, despite that fact of its popularity, new patches have been created that gave this editor a new life.

Resource Tuner

Excellent resource editor from the creators of PE Explorer. It contains built-in unpackers, e.g. for UPX or FSG compressor, resource edition can be also done with use of friendly wizards. Resource Tuner has also built-in scanner that allows for scanning of any given catalogue for resources of a specific type.

Editors and support tools

Reverse engineering requires specialized tools for specific purposes, other than standard ones like disassemblers, decompilers and debuggers – there are many dedicated tools that help in analysis of applications as well as editors, some of them you will find below.

PE-Bear

Excellent browser and file structure editor, with built-in simple disassembler, PE file compare basing on values from all structures (solution that is unique on a world scale), detection of popular exe-packers / exe-protectors, hex editor and graphic visualization of section structure.

Tool created by a Polish programmer (yes, you got it right) is perfect for low-level analysis of PE/PE32+ files, created mostly for the purpose of malware analysis.

PeStudio

An interesting tool that apart from displaying basic information about exe file, has also a set of rules that can detect incorrect elements in the structure of exe file (all sorts of anomalies) as well as elements that can potentially indicate that the file has been infected. Very useful tool for those who work with PE files every day.

Websitehttps://www.winitor.com
LicenceFree for non-commercial use.
Advantages
  • Detection of anomalies in exe files
  • Convenient PE file structure viewer
Disadvantages
  • Some rules are too strict

dirtyJOE

Advanced editor for compiled Java files. Unique tool, developed by Polish author, for code modifying, with built-in disassembler and assembler, this editor allows also for modifying all structures within compiled *.class files. dirtyJOE is useful when we want to modify protected files (after using obfuscator for Java), when traditional methods of decompilation, modification and recompilation fail, dirtyJOE proves irreplaceable.

Websitehttp://dirty-joe.com
LicenceFree for non-commercial use.
Advantages
  • Instructions disassembler and assemblerJVM
  • Adding and editing fields like e.g. text strings
  • 32 and 64 bit versions
  • Plugin for Total Commander
Disadvantages
  • Raw interface
  • Uncomfortable code editor

Extractors and rippers

Application files, just like application bundles, can contain additional information, like e.g. hidden icons, sound files, libraries, etc. If we want to have a quick check of what's inside the application or e.g. inside the whole installation package of software, we must use appropriate extractor or ripper.

Universal Extractor

This software allows for the extraction of files from archives, self unpacking archives, and installers. This is very useful when we want to learn what's inside the installer package, where often we can find some additional installation scripts or auxiliary libraries, without actually running the installation process.

Websitehttp://legroom.net/software/uniextract
LicenceFreeware
Advantages
  • Support for archives (including unpacking)
  • File extraction from popular installing systems
Disadvantages
  • Haven't been updated for a long time
  • Sometimes alternative solutions are needed for newer versions of installing systems
Alternatives

MultiExtractor

Extractor of all kinds of multimedia files, like graphic files, icons, sound files, movies, 3D models, Flash animations. Dynamic data unpacking from processes memory and simple viewer make this software a very interesting tool, when we want to take a quick peek what's inside application files.

Websitehttps://www.multiextractor.com
LicenceCommercial from 19 USD and demo version.
Advantages
  • Extraction of numerous graphic file formats
  • Extraction from processes' memory
  • Recognising popular file formats
Disadvantages
  • No new file formats added for quite a long time
  • Can sometimes freeze, especially with large number of files.
Alternatives

Virtual environments

Analysis of unknown software can be risky, especially when we have to run the software and just doing this with debugger can end up badly if the software runs a thread in the background which can install a rootkit or other malware. It is a good idea to be protected against such accidents and run suspicious software under the supervision of a virtual machine.

VMware

The most famed software that creates a virtual environment, where we can install any operating system and test software without unnecessary risk.

Sandboxie

This software creates virtual sandbox for applications that are run. All operations within virtual sandbox are isolated and have no influence over the system. This is a perfect solution for debugging or quick test of correctness of application's running without fear for side effects.

Websitehttps://www.sandboxie.com
LicenceCommercial from 15 EUR and free trial version.
Advantages
  • Perfect isolation of run applications, without the need to use dedicated virtual environments.
Disadvantages
  • A bit outdated user interface
Alternatives

This is not the end, this is just the beginning...

Presented tools are just a part of what can be found on the market. There many other free or experimental projects as well as those that were abandoned at some point but are still worth a look. I encourage you to discover secrets of reverse engineering and if you should find something interesting - write me an email.

About the Author

Bartosz Wójcik — author is interested in western philosophy, has a black belt in yoga, spends his time between watching Futurama and South Park on God knows what, apart from that he's an advocate of closed-source software and a staunch activist for high-gluten diet.

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
Resource Hacker Torrent Archives

Internet Archive

"archive.org" redirects here. It is not to be confused with arXiv.org.
American non-profit organization providing archives of digital media

Coordinates: 37°46′56″N122°28′18″W / 37.782321°N 122.47161137°W / 37.782321; -122.47161137

The Internet Archive is an American digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge."[notes 2][notes 3] It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating a free and open Internet. The Internet Archive currently holds over 20 million books and texts, 3 million movies and videos, 400,000 software programs, 7 million audio files, and 463 billion web pages in the Wayback Machine.

The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains hundreds of billions of web captures.[notes 4][4] The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

Operations[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(May 2020)

The Archive is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources: revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[5] The Internet Archive manages periodic funding campaigns, like the one started in December 2019 with a goal of reaching donations for $6 million.[6]

Its headquarters are in San Francisco, California. From 1996 to 2009, headquarters were in the Presidio of San Francisco, a former U.S. military base. Since 2009, headquarters have been at 300 Funston Avenue in San Francisco, a former Christian Science Church.

At one time, most of its staff worked in its book-scanning centers; as of 2019, scanning is performed by 100 paid operators worldwide.[7] The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities: San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To prevent losing the data in case of e.g. a natural disaster, the Archive attempts to create copies of (parts of) the collection at more distant locations, currently including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina[notes 5] in Egypt and a facility in Amsterdam.[8] The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium[9] and was officially designated as a library by the state of California in 2007.[notes 6]

History[edit]

Brewster Kahle founded the archive in May 1996 at around the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet.[notes 7] In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities,[notes 8] though it saved the earliest pages in May 1996.[10][11] The archived content wasn't available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine.

In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archives. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Soon after that, the archive began working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled; publicly accessible books were made available in a protected Digital Accessible Information System (DAISY) format.[notes 9]

According to its website:[notes 10]

Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.

In August 2012, the archive announced[12] that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for more than 1.3 million existing files, and all newly uploaded files.[13][14] This method is the fastest means of downloading media from the Archive, as files are served from two Archive data centers, in addition to other torrent clients which have downloaded and continue to serve the files.[13][notes 11] On November 6, 2013, the Internet Archive's headquarters in San Francisco's Richmond District caught fire,[15] destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.[16] According to the Archive, it lost a side-building housing one of 30 of its scanning centers; cameras, lights, and scanning equipment worth hundreds of thousands of dollars; and "maybe 20 boxes of books and film, some irreplaceable, most already digitized, and some replaceable".[17] The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage.[18]

In November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build a backup archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump.[19][20][21] Kahle was quoted as saying:

On November 9th in America, we woke up to a new administration promising radical change. It was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and perpetually accessible. It means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions. It means serving patrons in a world in which government surveillance is not going away; indeed it looks like it will increase. Throughout history, libraries have fought against terrible violations of privacy—where people have been rounded up simply for what they read. At the Internet Archive, we are fighting to protect our readers' privacy in the digital world.[19]

Since 2018, the Internet Archive visual arts residency, which is organized by Amir Saber Esfahani and Andrew McClintock, helps connect artists with the archive's over 48 petabytes[notes 12] of digitized materials. Over the course of the yearlong residency, visual artists create a body of work which culminates in an exhibition. The hope is to connect digital history with the arts and create something for future generations to appreciate online or off.[22] Previous artists in residence include Taravat Talepasand, Whitney Lynn, and Jenny Odell.[23]

In 2019, the main scanning operations were moved to Cebu in the Philippines and were planned to reach a pace of half a million books scanned per year, until an initial target of 4 million books. The Internet Archive acquires most materials from donations, such as a donation of 250 thousand books from Trent University and hundreds of thousands of 78 rpm discs from Boston Public Library. All material is then digitized and retained in digital storage, while a digital copy is returned to the original holder and the Internet Archive's copy, if not in the public domain, is borrowed to patrons worldwide one at a time under the controlled digital lending (CDL) theory of the first-sale doctrine.[24] Meanwhile, in the same year its headquarters in San Francisco received a bomb threat which forced a temporary evacuation of the building.[25]

Web archiving[edit]

Wayback Machine[edit]

Wayback Machine logo, used since 2001

The Internet Archive capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon (specifically Peabody's Improbable History), and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.[26] This service allows users to view some of the archived web pages. The Wayback Machine was created as a joint effort between Alexa Internet and the Internet Archive when a three-dimensional index was built to allow for the browsing of archived web content.[notes 13] Millions of web sites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of web sites used to look like, to grab original source code from web sites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit web sites that no longer even exist. Not all web sites are available because many web site owners choose to exclude their sites. As with all sites based on data from web crawlers, the Internet Archive misses large areas of the web for a variety of other reasons. A 2004 paper found international biases in the coverage, but deemed them "not intentional".[27]

A purchase of additional storage at the Internet Archive

A "Save Page Now" archiving feature was made available in October 2013,[28] accessible on the lower right of the Wayback Machine's main page.[notes 14] Once a target URL is entered and saved, the web page will become part of the Wayback Machine.[28] Through the Internet address web.archive.org,[29] users can upload to the Wayback Machine a large variety of contents, including PDF and data compression file formats. The Wayback Machine creates a permanent local URL of the upload content, that is accessible in the web, even if not listed while searching in the http://archive.org official website.

May 12, 1996, is the date of the oldest archived pages on the archive.org WayBack Machine, such as infoseek.com.[30]

In October 2016, it was announced that the way web pages are counted would be changed, resulting in the decrease of the archived pages counts shown.[31]

A Using the old counting system used before October 2016
B Using the new counting system used after October 2016

Archive-It[edit]

Created in early 2006, Archive-It[33] is a web archiving subscription service that allows institutions and individuals to build and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives. Archive-It allows the user to customize their capture or exclusion of web content they want to preserve for cultural heritage reasons. Through a web application, Archive-It partners can harvest, catalog, manage, browse, search, and view their archived collections.[34]

In terms of accessibility, the archived web sites are full text searchable within seven days of capture.[35] Content collected through Archive-It is captured and stored as a WARC file. A primary and back-up copy is stored at the Internet Archive data centers. A copy of the WARC file can be given to subscribing partner institutions for geo-redundant preservation and storage purposes to their best practice standards.[36] Periodically, the data captured through Archive-It is indexed into the Internet Archive's general archive.

As of March 2014[update], Archive-It had more than 275 partner institutions in 46 U.S. states and 16 countries that have captured more than 7.4 billion URLs for more than 2,444 public collections. Archive-It partners are universities and college libraries, state archives, federal institutions, museums, law libraries, and cultural organizations, including the Electronic Literature Organization, North Carolina State Archives and Library, Stanford University, Columbia University, American University in Cairo, Georgetown Law Library, and many others.

Book collections[edit]

Text collection[edit]

The Internet Archive operates 33 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1,000 books a day for a total of more than 2 million books,[37] financially supported by libraries and foundations.[notes 28] As of July 2013[update], the collection included 4.4 million books with more than 15 million downloads per month.[37] As of November 2008[update], when there were approximately 1 million texts, the entire collection was greater than 0.5 petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.[38] Between about 2006 and 2008, Microsoft had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning more than 300,000 books that were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, 2008, Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.[39] Microsoft made its scanned books available without contractual restriction and donated its scanning equipment to its former partners.[39]

An Internet Archive in-house scan ongoing

Around October 2007, Archive users began uploading public domain books from Google Book Search.[notes 29] As of November 2013[update], there were more than 900,000 Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection;[notes 30] the books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download.[40] Brewster Kahle revealed in 2013 that this archival effort was coordinated by Aaron Swartz, who with a "bunch of friends" downloaded the public domain books from Google slow enough and from enough computers to stay within Google's restrictions. They did this to ensure public access to the public domain. The Archive ensured the items were attributed and linked back to Google, which never complained, while libraries "grumbled". According to Kahle, this is an example of Swartz's "genius" to work on what could give the most to the public good for millions of people.[41]Besides books, the Archive offers free and anonymous public access to more than four million court opinions, legal briefs, or exhibits uploaded from the United States Federal Courts' PACER electronic document system via the RECAP web browser plugin. These documents had been kept behind a federal court paywall. On the Archive, they had been accessed by more than six million people by 2013.[41]

The Archive's BookReader web app,[42] built into its website, has features such as single-page, two-page, and thumbnail modes; fullscreen mode; page zooming of high-resolution images; and flip page animation.[42][43]

Number of texts for each language[edit]

Number of all texts
(December 9, 2019)
22,197,912[44]
Language Number of texts
(November 27, 2015)
English6,553,945[notes 31]
French358,721[notes 32]
German344,810[notes 33]
Spanish134,170[notes 34]
Chinese84,147[notes 35]
Arabic66,786[notes 36]
Dutch30,237[notes 37]
Portuguese25,938[notes 38]
Russian22,731[notes 39]
Urdu14,978[notes 40]
Japanese14,795[notes 41]

Number of texts for each decade[edit]

Decade Number of texts
(November 27, 2015)
1800s 39,842[notes 42]
1810s 51,151[notes 43]
1820s 79,476[notes 44]
1830s 105,021[notes 45]
1840s 127,649[notes 46]
1850s 180,950[notes 47]
1860s 210,574[notes 48]
1870s 214,505[notes 49]
1880s 285,984[notes 50]
1890s 370,726[notes 51]
Decade Number of texts
(November 27, 2015)
1900s 504,000[notes 52]
1910s 455,539[notes 53]
1920s 185,876[notes 54]
1930s 70,190[notes 55]
1940s 85,062[notes 56]
1950s 81,192[notes 57]
1960s 125,977[notes 58]
1970s 206,870[notes 59]
1980s 181,129[notes 60]
1990s 272,848[notes 61]

Open Library[edit]

The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The wiki seeks to include a web page for every book ever published: it holds 25 million catalog records of editions. It also seeks to be a web-accessible public library: it contains the full texts of approximately 1,600,000 public domain books (out of the more than five million from the main texts collection), as well as in-print and in-copyright books,[45] which are fully readable, downloadable[46][47] and full-text searchable;[48] it offers a two-week loan of e-books in its Books to Borrow lending program for over 647,784 books not in the public domain, in partnership with over 1,000 library partners from 6 countries[37][49] after a free registration on the web site. Open Library is a free and open-source software project, with its source code freely available on GitHub.

The Open Library faces objections from some authors and the Society of Authors, who hold that the project is distributing books without authorization and is thus in violation of copyright laws,[50] and four major publishers initiated a copyright infringement lawsuit against the Internet Archive in June 2020 to stop the Open Library project.[51]

List of digitizing sponsors for ebooks[edit]

As of December 2018, over 50 sponsors helped the Internet Archive provide over 5 million scanned books (text items). Of these, over 2 million were scanned by Internet Archive itself, funded either by itself or by MSN, the University of Toronto or the Internet Archive's founder's Kahle/Austin Foundation.[52]

The collections for scanning centers often include also digitisations sponsored by their partners, for instance the University of Toronto performed scans supported by other Canadian libraries.

Sponsor Main collection Number of texts sponsored[52]
Google[1]1,302,624
Internet Archive[2]917,202
Kahle/Austin Foundation471,376
MSN[3]420,069
University of Toronto[4]176,888
U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library150,984
Wellcome Library127,701
University of Alberta Libraries[5]100,511
China-America Digital Academic Library (CADAL)[6]91,953
Sloan Foundation[7]83,111
The Library of Congress[8]79,132
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign[9]72,269
Princeton Theological Seminary Library66,442
Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries59,562
Jisc and Wellcome Library55,878
Lyrasis members and Sloan Foundation[10]54,930
Boston Public Library54,067
Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group51,884
Getty Research Institute[11]46,571
Greek Open Technologies Alliance through Google Summer of Code45,371
University of Ottawa44,808
BioStor42,919
Naval Postgraduate School, Dudley Knox Library37,727
University of Victoria Libraries37,650
The Newberry Library37,616
Brigham Young University33,784
Columbia University Libraries31,639
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill29,298
Institut national de la recherche agronomique26,293
Montana State Library25,372
Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center[12]24,829
Michael Best24,825
Bibliotheca Alexandrina24,555
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Alternates22,726
Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences21,468
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries20,827
Environmental Data Resources, Inc.20,259
Public.Resource.Org20,185
Smithsonian Libraries19,948
Eric P. Newman Numismatic Education Society18,781
NIST Research Library18,739
Open Knowledge Commons, United States National Library of Medicine18,091
Biodiversity Heritage Library[13]17,979
Ontario Council of University Libraries and Member Libraries17,880
Corporation of the Presiding Bishop, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints16,880
Leo Baeck Institute Archives16,769
North Carolina Digital Heritage Center[14]14,355
California State Library, Califa/LSTA Grant14,149
Duke University Libraries14,122
The Black Vault13,765
Buddhist Digital Resource Center13,460
John Carter Brown Library12,943
MBL/WHOI Library11,538
Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Ernst Mayr Library[15]10,196
AFS Intercultural Programs10,114

In 2017, the MIT Press authorized the Internet Archive to digitize and lend books from the press's backlist,[53] with financial support from the Arcadia Fund.[54][55] A year later, the Internet Archive received further funding from the Arcadia Fund to invite some other university presses to partner with the Internet Archive to digitize books, a project called "Unlocking University Press Books".[56][57]

Media collections[edit]

Microfilms at the Internet Archive

In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. Media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes a "Community" sub-collection (formerly named "Open Source") where general contributions by the public are stored.

Audio collection[edit]

The Audio Archive includes music, audiobooks, news broadcasts, old time radio shows, and a wide variety of other audio files. There are more than 200,000 free digital recordings in the collection. The subcollections include audio books and poetry, podcasts,[58] non-English audio, and many others.[notes 64] The sound collections are curated by B. George, director of the ARChive of Contemporary Music.[59]

The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes more than 170,000 concert recordings from independent musicians, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts, such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins. Also, Jordan Zevon has allowed the Internet Archive to host a definitive collection of his father Warren Zevon's concert recordings. The Zevon collection ranges from 1976–2001 and contains 126 concerts including 1,137 songs.[60]

The Great 78 Project aims to digitize 250,000 78 rpm singles (500,000 songs) from the period between 1880 and 1960, donated by various collectors and institutions. It has been developed in collaboration with the Archive of Contemporary Music and George Blood Audio, responsible for the audio digitization.[59]

Brooklyn Museum[edit]

This collection contains approximately 3,000 items from Brooklyn Museum.[notes 65]

Images collection[edit]

This collection contains more than 880,000 items.[notes 66]Cover Art Archive, Metropolitan Museum of Art - Gallery Images, NASA Images, Occupy Wall StreetFlickr Archive, and USGS Maps and are some sub-collections of Image collection.

Cover Art Archive[edit]

The Cover Art Archive is a joint project between the Internet Archive and MusicBrainz, whose goal is to make cover art images on the Internet. This collection contains more than 330,000 items.[notes 67]

Metropolitan Museum of Art images[edit]

The images of this collection are from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This collection contains more than 140,000 items.[notes 68]

NASA Images[edit]

The NASA Images archive was created through a Space Act Agreement between the Internet Archive and NASA to bring public access to NASA's image, video, and audio collections in a single, searchable resource. The IA NASA Images team worked closely with all of the NASA centers to keep adding to the ever-growing collection.[61] The nasaimages.org site launched in July 2008 and had more than 100,000 items online at the end of its hosting in 2012.

Occupy Wall Street Flickr archive[edit]

This collection contains creative commons licensed photographs from Flickr related to the Occupy Wall Street movement. This collection contains more than 15,000 items.[notes 69]

USGS Maps[edit]

This collection contains more than 59,000 items from Libre Map Project.[notes 70]

Machinima archive[edit]

One of the sub-collections of the Internet Archive's Video Archive is the Machinima Archive. This small section hosts many Machinima videos. Machinima is a digital artform in which computer games, game engines, or software engines are used in a sandbox-like mode to create motion pictures, recreate plays, or even publish presentations or keynotes. The archive collects a range of Machinima films from internet publishers such as Rooster Teeth and Machinima.com as well as independent producers. The sub-collection is a collaborative effort among the Internet Archive, the How They Got Game research project at Stanford University, the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences, and Machinima.com.[notes 71]

Mathematics – Hamid Naderi Yeganeh[edit]

This collection contains mathematical images created by mathematical artist Hamid Naderi Yeganeh.[notes 72]

Microfilm collection[edit]

This collection contains approximately 160,000 items from a variety of libraries including the University of Chicago Libraries, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Alberta, Allen County Public Library, and the National Technical Information Service.[notes 73][notes 74]

Moving image collection[edit]

The Internet Archive holds a collection of approximately 3,863 feature films.[notes 75] Additionally, the Internet Archive's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels, classic cartoons, pro- and anti-war propaganda, The Video Cellar Collection, Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection, early television, and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as

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