Sequenced sound manipulations Archives

Sequenced sound manipulations Archives

Sequenced sound manipulations Archives

Sequenced sound manipulations Archives

MIDI

Means of connecting electronic musical instruments
Example of music created in MIDI format
Using MIDI, a single controller (often a musical keyboard, as pictured here) can play multiple electronic instruments, which increases the portability and flexibility of stage setups. This system fits into a single rack case, but prior to the advent of MIDI, it would have required four separate full-size keyboard instruments, plus outboard mixing and effects units.

MIDI (/ˈmɪdi/; an acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, and electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers, and related audio devices for playing, editing and recording music.[1] The specification originates in a paper published by Dave Smith and Chet Wood then of Sequential Circuits at the October 1981 Audio Engineering Society conference in New York City then titled Universal Synthesizer Interface.[2]

A single MIDI link through a MIDI cable can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device or instrument. This could be sixteen different digital instruments, for example. MIDI carries event messages; data that specify the instructions for music, including a note's notation, pitch, velocity (which is heard typically as loudness or softness of volume); vibrato; panning to the right or left of stereo; and clock signals (which set tempo). When a musician plays a MIDI instrument, all of the key presses, button presses, knob turns and slider changes are converted into MIDI data. One common MIDI application is to play a MIDI keyboard or other controller and use it to trigger a digital sound module (which contains synthesized musical sounds) to generate sounds, which the audience hears produced by a keyboard amplifier. MIDI data can be transferred via MIDI or USB cable, or recorded to a sequencer or digital audio workstation to be edited or played back.[3]:4

A file format that stores and exchanges the data is also defined. Advantages of MIDI include small file size, ease of modification and manipulation and a wide choice of electronic instruments and synthesizer or digitally-sampled sounds.[4] A MIDI recording of a performance on a keyboard could sound like a piano or other keyboard instrument; however, since MIDI records the messages and information about their notes and not the specific sounds, this recording could be changed to many other sounds, ranging from synthesized or sampled guitar or flute to full orchestra. A MIDI recording is not an audio signal, as with a sound recording made with a microphone.

Prior to the development of MIDI, electronic musical instruments from different manufacturers could generally not communicate with each other. This meant that a musician could not, for example, plug a Roland keyboard into a Yamaha synthesizer module. With MIDI, any MIDI-compatible keyboard (or other controller device) can be connected to any other MIDI-compatible sequencer, sound module, drum machine, synthesizer, or computer, even if they are made by different manufacturers.

MIDI technology was standardized in 1983 by a panel of music industry representatives, and is maintained by the MIDI Manufacturers Association (MMA). All official MIDI standards are jointly developed and published by the MMA in Los Angeles, and the MIDI Committee of the Association of Musical Electronics Industry (AMEI) in Tokyo. In 2016, the MMA established the MIDI Association (TMA) to support a global community of people who work, play, or create with MIDI.[5]

History[edit]

In the early 1980s, there was no standardized means of synchronizing electronic musical instruments manufactured by different companies.[6] Manufacturers had their own proprietary standards to synchronize instruments, such as CV/gate and Digital Control Bus (DCB).[7]Roland founder Ikutaro Kakehashi felt the lack of standardization was limiting the growth of the electronic music industry.[7] In June 1981, he proposed developing a standard to Oberheim Electronics founder Tom Oberheim,[6] who had developed his own proprietary interface, the Oberheim System.[8]

Kakehashi felt the Oberheim System was too cumbersome, and spoke to Sequential Circuits president Dave Smith about creating a simpler, cheaper alternative.[8] While Smith discussed the concept with American companies, Kakehashi discussed it with Japanese companies Yamaha, Korg and Kawai.[6] Representatives from all companies met to discuss the idea in October.[6] Initially, only Sequential Circuits and the Japanese companies were interested.[9]

Dave Smith (right), one of the creators of MIDI

Using Roland's DCB as a basis,[7] Smith and Sequential Circuits engineer Chet Wood devised a universal interface to allow communication between equipment from different manufacturers. Smith and Wood proposed this standard in a paper, Universal Synthesizer Interface,[10] at the Audio Engineering Society show in October 1981.[2][11]:4 The standard was discussed and modified by representatives of Roland, Yamaha, Korg, Kawai, and Sequential Circuits.[12][13]:20 Kakehashi favored the name Universal Musical Interface (UMI), pronounced you-me,[8] but Smith felt this was "a little corny".[14] However, he liked the use of "instrument" instead of "synthesizer", and proposed the name Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI).[14][11]:4Moog Music founder Robert Moog announced MIDI in the October 1982 issue of Keyboard.[15]:276

At the 1983 Winter NAMM Show, Smith demonstrated a MIDI connection between Prophet 600 and Roland JP-6 synthesizers. The MIDI specification was published in August 1983.[6] The MIDI standard was unveiled by Kakehashi and Smith, who received Technical Grammy Awards in 2013 for their work.[16][17][18] In 1982, the first instruments were released with MIDI, the Roland Jupiter-6 and the Prophet 600. In 1983, the first MIDI drum machine, the Roland TR-909,[19][20] and the first MIDI sequencer, the Roland MSQ-700 were released.[21] The first computer to support MIDI, the NECPC-88 and PC-98, was released in 1982.[22]

The MIDI Manufacturers Association (MMA) was formed following a meeting of "all interested companies" at the 1984 Summer NAMM Show in Chicago. The MIDI 1.0 Detailed Specification was published at the MMA's second meeting at the 1985 Summer NAMM show. The standard continued to evolve, adding standardized song files in 1991 (General MIDI) and adapted to new connection standards such as USB and FireWire. In 2016, the MIDI Association was formed to continue overseeing the standard.[9] An initiative to create a 2.0 standard was announced in January 2019.[23] The MIDI 2.0 standard was introduced at the 2020 Winter NAMM show.[24]

Impact[edit]

MIDI's appeal was originally limited to professional musicians and record producers who wanted to use electronic instruments in the production of popular music. The standard allowed different instruments to communicate with each other and with computers, and this spurred a rapid expansion of the sales and production of electronic instruments and music software.[13]:21 This interoperability allowed one device to be controlled from another, which reduced the amount of hardware musicians needed.[25] MIDI's introduction coincided with the dawn of the personal computer era and the introduction of samplers and digital synthesizers.[26] The creative possibilities brought about by MIDI technology are credited for helping revive the music industry in the 1980s.[27]

MIDI introduced capabilities that transformed the way many musicians work. MIDI sequencing makes it possible for a user with no notation skills to build complex arrangements.[28] A musical act with as few as one or two members, each operating multiple MIDI-enabled devices, can deliver a performance similar to that of a larger group of musicians.[29] The expense of hiring outside musicians for a project can be reduced or eliminated,[3]:7 and complex productions can be realized on a system as small as a synthesizer with integrated keyboard and sequencer.

MIDI also helped establish home recording. By performing preproduction in a home environment, an artist can reduce recording costs by arriving at a recording studio with a partially completed song.[3]:7–8

Applications[edit]

Instrument control[edit]

MIDI was invented so that electronic or digital musical instruments could communicate with each other and so that one instrument can control another. For example, a MIDI-compatible sequencer can trigger beats produced by a drum sound module. Analog synthesizers that have no digital component and were built prior to MIDI's development can be retrofit with kits that convert MIDI messages into analog control voltages.[15]:277 When a note is played on a MIDI instrument, it generates a digital MIDI message that can be used to trigger a note on another instrument.[3]:20 The capability for remote control allows full-sized instruments to be replaced with smaller sound modules, and allows musicians to combine instruments to achieve a fuller sound, or to create combinations of synthesized instrument sounds, such as acoustic piano and strings.[30] MIDI also enables other instrument parameters (volume, effects, etc.) to be controlled remotely.

Synthesizers and samplers contain various tools for shaping an electronic or digital sound. Filters adjust timbre, and envelopes automate the way a sound evolves over time after a note is triggered.[31] The frequency of a filter and the envelope attack (the time it takes for a sound to reach its maximum level), are examples of synthesizer parameters, and can be controlled remotely through MIDI. Effects devices have different parameters, such as delay feedback or reverb time. When a MIDI continuous controller number (CCN) is assigned to one of these parameters, the device responds to any messages it receives that are identified by that number. Controls such as knobs, switches, and pedals can be used to send these messages. A set of adjusted parameters can be saved to a device's internal memory as a patch, and these patches can be remotely selected by MIDI program changes.[a][32]

Composition[edit]

MIDI events can be sequenced with computer software, or in specialized hardware music workstations. Many digital audio workstations (DAWs) are specifically designed to work with MIDI as an integral component. MIDI piano rolls have been developed in many DAWs so that the recorded MIDI messages can be easily modified.[33] These tools allow composers to audition and edit their work much more quickly and efficiently than did older solutions, such as multitrack recording.

Because MIDI is a set of commands that create sound, MIDI sequences can be manipulated in ways that prerecorded audio cannot. It is possible to change the key, instrumentation or tempo of a MIDI arrangement,[34]:227 and to reorder its individual sections.[35] The ability to compose ideas and quickly hear them played back enables composers to experiment.[36]:175Algorithmic composition programs provide computer-generated performances that can be used as song ideas or accompaniment.[3]:122

Some composers may take advantage of standard, portable set of commands and parameters in MIDI 1.0 and General MIDI (GM) to share musical data files among various electronic instruments. The data composed via the sequenced MIDI recordings can be saved as a standard MIDI file (SMF), digitally distributed, and reproduced by any computer or electronic instrument that also adheres to the same MIDI, GM, and SMF standards. MIDI data files are much smaller than corresponding recorded audio files.

Use with computers[edit]

The personal computer market stabilized at the same time that MIDI appeared, and computers became a viable option for music production.[15]:324 In 1983 computers started to play a role in mainstream music production.[37] In the years immediately after the 1983 ratification of the MIDI specification, MIDI features were adapted to several early computer platforms. NEC's PC-88 and PC-98 began supporting MIDI as early as 1982.[22] The Yamaha CX5M introduced MIDI support and sequencing in an MSX system in 1984.[38]

The spread of MIDI on personal computers was largely facilitated by Roland Corporation's MPU-401, released in 1984, as the first MIDI-equipped PC sound card, capable of MIDI sound processing[39] and sequencing.[40][41] After Roland sold MPU sound chips to other sound card manufacturers,[39] it established a universal standard MIDI-to-PC interface.[42] The widespread adoption of MIDI led to computer-based MIDI software being developed.[37] Soon after, a number of platforms began supporting MIDI, including the Apple II Plus, IIe and Macintosh, Commodore 64 and Amiga, Atari ST, Acorn Archimedes, and PC DOS.[15]:325–7

The Macintosh was a favourite among US musicians, as it was marketed at a competitive price, and it took several years for PC systems to catch up with its efficiency and graphical interface. The Atari ST was preferred in Europe, where Macintoshes were more expensive. The Atari ST had the advantage of MIDI ports that were built directly into the computer. Most music software in MIDI's first decade was published for either the Apple or the Atari. By the time of Windows 3.0's 1990 release, PCs had caught up in processing power and had acquired a graphical interface and software titles began to see release on multiple platforms.[15]:324–335

Standard files[edit]

MIDI files contain each sound events such as each finger strikes separately that can be visualised using piano training software such as Synthesia

The Standard MIDI File (SMF) is a file format that provides a standardized way for music sequences to be saved, transported, and opened in other systems. The standard was developed and is maintained by the MMA, and usually uses a extension.[43] The compact size of these files led to their widespread use in computers, mobile phone ringtones, webpage authoring and musical greeting cards. These files are intended for universal use and include such information as note values, timing and track names. Lyrics may be included as metadata, and can be displayed by karaoke machines.[44]

SMFs are created as an export format of software sequencers or hardware workstations. They organize MIDI messages into one or more parallel tracks and timestamp the events so that they can be played back in sequence. A header contains the arrangement's track count, tempo and an indicator of which of three SMF formats the file uses. A type 0 file contains the entire performance, merged onto a single track, while type 1 files may contain any number of tracks that are performed in synchrony. Type 2 files are rarely used[45] and store multiple arrangements, with each arrangement having its own track and intended to be played in sequence.

Microsoft Windows bundles SMFs together with Downloadable Sounds (DLS) in a Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) wrapper, as RMID files with a extension. RIFF-RMID has been deprecated in favor of Extensible Music Files (XMF).[46]

A MIDI file is not an audio recording. Rather, it is a set of instructions for example, for pitch or tempo and can use a thousand times less disk space than the equivalent recorded audio.[47][48] This made MIDI file arrangements an attractive way to share music, before the advent of broadband internet access and multi-gigabyte hard drives. Licensed MIDI files on floppy disks were commonly available in stores in Europe and Japan during the 1990s.[49] The major drawback to this is the wide variation in quality of users' audio cards, and in the actual audio contained as samples or synthesized sound in the card that the MIDI data only refers to symbolically. There is no standardization of how symbols are expressed. Even a sound card that contains high-quality sampled sounds can have inconsistent quality from one sampled instrument to another,[47] while different model cards have no guarantee of consistent sound of the same instrument. Early budget-priced cards, such as the AdLib and the Sound Blaster and its compatibles, used a stripped-down version of Yamaha's frequency modulation synthesis (FM synthesis) technology[50] played back through low-quality digital-to-analog converters. The low-fidelity reproduction[47] of these ubiquitous[50] cards was often assumed to somehow be a property of MIDI itself. This created a perception of MIDI as low-quality audio, while in reality MIDI itself contains no sound,[51] and the quality of its playback depends entirely on the quality of the sound-producing device (and of samples in the device).[34]:227

Software[edit]

The main advantage of the personal computer in a MIDI system is that it can serve a number of different purposes, depending on the software that is loaded.[3]:55Multitasking allows simultaneous operation of programs that may be able to share data with each other.[3]:65

Sequencers[edit]

Sequencing software provides a number of benefits to a composer or arranger. It allows recorded MIDI to be manipulated using standard computer editing features such as cut, copy and paste and drag and drop. Keyboard shortcuts can be used to streamline workflow, and editing functions are often selectable via MIDI commands. The sequencer allows each channel to be set to play a different sound, and gives a graphical overview of the arrangement. A variety of editing tools are made available, including a notation display that can be used to create printed parts for musicians. Tools such as looping, quantization, randomization, and transposition simplify the arranging process.

Beat creation is simplified, and groove templates can be used to duplicate another track's rhythmic feel. Realistic expression can be added through the manipulation of real-time controllers. Mixing can be performed, and MIDI can be synchronized with recorded audio and video tracks. Work can be saved, and transported between different computers or studios.[52][53]:164–6

Sequencers may take alternate forms, such as drum pattern editors that allow users to create beats by clicking on pattern grids,[3]:118 and loop sequencers such as ACID Pro, which allow MIDI to be combined with prerecorded audio loops whose tempos and keys are matched to each other. Cue list sequencing is used to trigger dialogue, sound effect, and music cues in stage and broadcast production.[3]:121

Notation/scoring software[edit]

With MIDI, notes played on a keyboard can automatically be transcribed to sheet music.[13]:213Scorewriting software typically lacks advanced sequencing tools, and is optimized for the creation of a neat, professional printout designed for live instrumentalists.[53]:157 These programs provide support for dynamics and expression markings, chord and lyric display, and complex score styles.[53]:167 Software is available that can print scores in braille.[54]

SmartScore software can produce MIDI files from scanned sheet music.[55] Other notation programs include Finale, Encore, Sibelius, MuseScore and Dorico.

Editor/librarians[edit]

Patch editors allow users to program their equipment through the computer interface. These became essential with the appearance of complex synthesizers such as the Yamaha FS1R,[56] which contained several thousand programmable parameters, but had an interface that consisted of fifteen tiny buttons, four knobs and a small LCD.[57] Digital instruments typically discourage users from experimentation, due to their lack of the feedback and direct control that switches and knobs would provide,[58]:393 but patch editors give owners of hardware instruments and effects devices the same editing functionality that is available to users of software synthesizers.[59] Some editors are designed for a specific instrument or effects device, while other, "universal" editors support a variety of equipment, and ideally can control the parameters of every device in a setup through the use of System Exclusive commands.[3]:129

Patch librarians have the specialized function of organizing the sounds in a collection of equipment, and allow transmission of entire banks of sounds between an instrument and a computer. This allows the user to augment the device's limited patch storage with a computer's much greater disk capacity,[3]:133 and to share custom patches with other owners of the same instrument.[60] Universal editor/librarians that combine the two functions were once common, and included Opcode Systems' Galaxy and eMagic's SoundDiver. These programs have been largely abandoned with the trend toward computer-based synthesis, although Mark of the Unicorn's (MOTU)'s Unisyn and Sound Quest's Midi Quest remain available. Native Instruments' Kore was an effort to bring the editor/librarian concept into the age of software instruments.[61]

Auto-accompaniment programs[edit]

Programs that can dynamically generate accompaniment tracks are called "auto-accompaniment" programs. These create a full band arrangement in a style that the user selects, and send the result to a MIDI sound generating device for playback. The generated tracks can be used as educational or practice tools, as accompaniment for live performances, or as a songwriting aid.[62]:42

Synthesis and sampling[edit]

Computers can use software to generate sounds, which are then passed through a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) to a power amplifier and loudspeaker system.[13]:213 The number of sounds that can be played simultaneously (the polyphony) is dependent on the power of the computer's CPU, as are the sample rate and bit depth of playback, which directly affect the quality of the sound.[63] Synthesizers implemented in software are subject to timing issues that are not present with hardware instruments, whose dedicated operating systems are not subject to interruption from background tasks as desktop operating systems are. These timing issues can cause synchronization problems, and clicks and pops when sample playback is interrupted. Software synthesizers also exhibit a noticeable delay known as latency in their sound generation, because computers use an audio buffer that delays playback and disrupts MIDI timing.[64]

Software synthesis' roots go back as far as the 1950s, when Max Mathews of Bell Labs wrote the MUSIC-N programming language, which was capable of non-real-time sound generation.[65] The first synthesizer to run directly on a host computer's CPU[66] was Reality, by Dave Smith's Seer Systems, which achieved a low latency through tight driver integration, and therefore could run only on Creative Labs soundcards.[67] Some systems use dedicated hardware to reduce the load on the host CPU, as with Symbolic Sound Corporation's Kyma System,[65] and the Creamware/Sonic Core Pulsar/SCOPE systems,[68] which power an entire recording studio's worth of instruments, effect units, and mixers.[69]

The ability to construct full MIDI arrangements entirely in computer software allows a composer to render a finalized result directly as an audio file.[30]

Game music[edit]

Early PC games were distributed on floppy disks, and the small size of MIDI files made them a viable means of providing soundtracks. Games of the DOS and early Windows eras typically required compatibility with either Ad Lib or Sound Blaster audio cards. These cards used FM synthesis, which generates sound through modulation of sine waves. John Chowning, the technique's pioneer, theorized that the technology would be capable of accurate recreation of any sound if enough sine waves were used, but budget computer audio cards performed FM synthesis with only two sine waves. Combined with the cards' 8-bit audio, this resulted in a sound described as "artificial"[70] and "primitive".[71]

Wavetable daughterboards that were later available provided audio samples that could be used in place of the FM sound. These were expensive, but often used the sounds from respected MIDI instruments such as the E-mu Proteus.[71] The computer industry moved in the mid-1990s toward wavetable-based soundcards with 16-bit playback, but standardized on a 2MB ROM, a space too small in which to fit good-quality samples of 128 instruments plus drum kits. Some manufacturers used 12-bit samples, and padded those to 16 bits.[72]

Other applications[edit]

MIDI has been adopted as a control protocol in a number of non-musical applications. MIDI Show Control uses MIDI commands to direct stage lighting systems and to trigger cued events in theatrical productions. VJs and turntablists use it to cue clips, and to synchronize equipment, and recording systems use it for synchronization and automation. Apple Motion allows control of animation parameters through MIDI. The 1987 first-person shooter game MIDI Maze and the 1990 Atari STcomputer puzzle gameOxyd used MIDI to network computers together, and kits are available that allow MIDI control over home lighting and appliances.[73]

Despite its association with music devices, MIDI can control any electronic or digital device that can read and process a MIDI command. The receiving device or object would require a General MIDI processor, however in this instance, the program changes would trigger a function on that device rather than notes from a MIDI instrument's controller. Each function can be set to a timer (also controlled by MIDI) or other condition or trigger determined by the device's creator.

Devices[edit]

Connectors[edit]

MIDI 1.0 connectors and MIDI 1.0 cable

The cables terminate in a 180° five-pin DIN connector. Standard applications use only three of the five conductors: a ground wire, and a balanced pair of conductors that carry a +5 volt signal.[62]:41 This connector configuration can only carry messages in one direction, so a second cable is necessary for two-way communication.[3]:13 Some proprietary applications, such as phantom-powered footswitch controllers, use the spare pins for direct current (DC) power transmission.[74]

Opto-isolators keep MIDI devices electrically separated from their connectors, which prevents the occurrence of ground loops[75]:63 and protects equipment from voltage spikes.[15]:277 There is no error detection capability in MIDI, so the maximum cable length is set at 15 meters (50 feet) to limit interference.[76]

Drawing of the MIDI 1.0 connector, showing pins as numbered

Most devices do not copy messages from their input to their output port. A third type of port, the "thru" port, emits a copy of everything received at the input port, allowing data to be forwarded to another instrument[15]:278 in a "daisy chain" arrangement.[77] Not all devices contain thru ports, and devices that lack the ability to generate MIDI data, such as effects units and sound modules, may not include out ports.[58]:384

Management devices[edit]

Each device in a daisy chain adds delay to the system. This is avoided with a MIDI thru box, which contains several outputs that provide an exact copy of the box's input signal. A MIDI merger is able to combine the input from multiple devices into a single stream, and allows multiple controllers to be connected to a single device. A MIDI switcher allows switching between multiple devices, and eliminates the need to physically repatch cables. MIDI patch bays combine all of these functions. They contain multiple inputs and outputs, and allow any combination of input channels to be routed to any combination of output channels. Routing setups can be created using computer software, stored in memory, and selected by MIDI program change commands.[3]:47–50 This enables the devices to function as standalone MIDI routers in situations where no computer is present.[3]:62–3 MIDI patch bays also clean up any skewing of MIDI data bits that occurs at the input stage.

MIDI data processors are used for utility tasks and special effects. These include MIDI filters, which remove unwanted MIDI data from the stream, and MIDI delays, effects that send a repeated copy of the input data at a set time.[3]:51

Interfaces[edit]

A computer MIDI interface's main function is to match clock speeds between the MIDI device and the computer.[77] Some computer sound cards include a standard MIDI connector, whereas others connect by any of various means that include the D-subminiature DA-15 game port, USB, FireWire, Ethernet or a proprietary connection. The increasing use of USB connectors in the 2000s has led to the availability of MIDI-to-USB data interfaces that can transfer MIDI channels to USB-equipped computers. Some MIDI keyboard controllers are equipped with USB jacks, and can be plugged into computers that run music software.

MIDI's serial transmission leads to timing problems. A three-byte MIDI message requires nearly 1 millisecond for transmission.[78] Because MIDI is serial, it can only send one event at a time. If an event is sent on two channels at once, the event on the second channel cannot transmit until the first one is finished, and so is delayed by 1 ms. If an event is sent on all channels at the same time, the last channel's transmission is delayed by as much as 16 ms. This contributed to the rise of MIDI interfaces with multiple in- and out-ports, because timing improves when events are spread between multiple ports as opposed to multiple channels on the same port.[64] The term "MIDI slop" refers to audible timing errors that result when MIDI transmission is delayed.[79]

Controllers[edit]

Two-octave MIDI controllers are popular for use with laptop computers, due to their portability. This unit provides a variety of real-time controllers, which can manipulate various sound design parameters of computer-based or standalone hardware instruments, effects, mixers and recording devices.

There are two types of MIDI controllers: performance controllers that generate notes and are used to perform music,[80] and controllers that may not send notes, but transmit other types of real-time events. Many devices are some combination of the two types.

Keyboards are by far the most common type of MIDI controller.[60] MIDI was designed with keyboards in mind, and any controller that is not a keyboard is considered an "alternative" controller.[81] This was seen as a limitation by composers who were not interested in keyboard-based music, but the standard proved flexible, and MIDI compatibility was introduced to other types of controllers, including guitars, stringed and wind instruments, drums and specialized and experimental controllers.[13]:23 Other controllers include drum controllers and wind controllers, which can emulate the playing of drum kit and wind instruments, respectively. Nevertheless, some features of the keyboard playing for which MIDI was designed do not fully capture other instruments' capabilities; Jaron Lanier cites the standard as an example of technological "lock-in" that unexpectedly limited what was possible to express.[82] Some of these features, such as per-note pitch bend, are to be addressed in MIDI 2.0, described below.

Software synthesizers offer great power and versatility, but some players feel that division of attention between a MIDI keyboard and a computer keyboard and mouse robs some of the immediacy from the playing experience.[83] Devices dedicated to real-time MIDI control provide an ergonomic benefit, and can provide a greater sense of connection with the instrument than an interface that is accessed through a mouse or a push-button digital menu. Controllers may be general-purpose devices that are designed to work with a variety of equipment, or they may be designed to work with a specific piece of software. Examples of the latter include Akai's APC40 controller for Ableton Live, and Korg's MS-20ic controller that is a reproduction of their MS-20

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US20110113357A1 - Manipulating results of a media archive search - Google Patents

Manipulating results of a media archive search Download PDF

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US20110113357A1
US20110113357A1US12/616,903US61690309AUS2011113357A1US 20110113357 A1US20110113357 A1US 20110113357A1US 61690309 AUS61690309 AUS 61690309AUS 2011113357 A1US2011113357 A1US 2011113357A1
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Nathaniel Ayewah
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  • 238000004091panningMethods0.000claimsdescription4
  • 238000000034methodsMethods0.000description8
  • 239000000463materialsSubstances0.000description2
  • 230000000694effectsEffects0.000description1
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    • G—PHYSICS
    • G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06F—ELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F16/00—Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor
    • G06F16/40—Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor of multimedia data, e.g. slideshows comprising image and additional audio data
    • G06F16/43—Querying
    • G06F16/438—Presentation of query results
    • G06F16/4387—Presentation of query results by the use of playlists
    • G—PHYSICS
    • G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06F—ELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F16/00—Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor
    • G06F16/40—Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor of multimedia data, e.g. slideshows comprising image and additional audio data
    • G06F16/43—Querying
    • G06F16/438—Presentation of query results
    • G—PHYSICS
    • G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06F—ELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F16/00—Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor
    • G06F16/40—Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor of multimedia data, e.g. slideshows comprising image and additional audio data
    • G06F16/44—Browsing; Visualisation therefor
    • G06F16/447—Temporal browsing, e.g. timeline
    • G—PHYSICS
    • G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06F—ELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F16/00—Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor
    • G06F16/40—Information retrieval; Database structures therefor; File system structures therefor of multimedia data, e.g. slideshows comprising image and additional audio data
    • G06F16/48—Retrieval characterised by using metadata, e.g. metadata not derived from the content or metadata generated manually

Abstract

Description

  • The present invention relates to searching media archives, and more specifically, to a dynamic interface for manipulating media archive search results.
  • Audio and video recordings, such as conference call recordings, podcasts, videos, and recordings of presentations or lectures, are increasingly used for information dissemination and storage. Searching media archives is a more difficult task than searching text archives because searching media archives relies mainly on indexing and searching the voice-to-text synchronized translations of the sound tracks of the archive recordings, which are rarely accurate. The precision of the transcription of the recordings can vary widely with the quality of the recording and with the speaker characteristics. As such, media transcripts may include several errors to the text such as misspellings or that the words were transcribed incorrectly because the recognition of the word is context-dependent. As a consequence, the result of a search can include many more irrelevant elements than text search would include on the archive of manual transcripts, (i.e. precision and recall can be lower as compared to a non-transcript text search). Furthermore, once the search completes, it is more difficult for the user to determine the relevance of the results returned by a media archive search than by a text archive search, as the visualization of the latter include short text fragments highlighting the search terms in context. Enhancing the results of a media archive search with text fragments surrounding search terms from the transcript is possible but difficult because automatic transcripts: include many errors, especially for short, common words (which are rarely used in search but are crucial when trying to understand the meaning of a sentence/short fragment); and are rarely capable of segmenting the word stream into sentences, or to identify punctuation signs, new paragraphs or speakers. Furthermore, the transcription is of limited value as words not included in the transcriber's vocabulary are never present in the index and cannot be used for searching. Therefore, transcription accuracy affects the ranking of search results, which takes into account the frequency of the search terms in each of the recordings that satisfy the Boolean query.
  • Existing systems identify the location of the search terms in the stream to quickly allow users to gather context by listening to the recording segment surrounding the search term position. Such user interfaces are static and they do not allow users to properly react to what they have listen to, such as updating the relevance of the “just listened to” recoding(s). Identifying the relevant information among the results of a media search is more difficult than for the results of document searches as well. A quick look at a document is typically enough to determine if it includes the information needed. The document formatting elements, such as paragraphs or fonts, play an important role in helping us find the relevant sentences, phrases, or data (tables, graphs, enumerations, etc.). Unfortunately, such visual cues cannot be generated accurately using existing voice-to-text computer programs. Typically, in a media search, the relevant information is retrieved by playing variable length segments of the media recordings retrieved by the Boolean search. This process is lengthy, it may complete in more than one session and the user may be interrupted by other events before it completes a search task. To speed-up the identification task, the system should precisely identify the relevant segments for the user and it should allow the user to edit the ranked set as desired during the identification process, with the goal of maximizing the user productivity across sessions, minimizing the negative impact of interruptions, or for saving a customization of the search results for later usage or sharing.
  • Therefore, there is a need for the user to easily manipulate the search results, save the outcome of this effort, and possibly share it with other users of the system.
  • Exemplary embodiments include a method for manipulating the results of a media archive search, the method including sending search terms related to one or more archive items in the media archive, receiving search results from the media archive, displaying the search results on a display, sending manipulation commands, performing manipulation operations based on the manipulation commands, displaying modified search results on the screen based on the manipulation operations and identifying attributes for each of the one or more archive items.
  • Further exemplary embodiments include a method in a computer system having a graphical user interface including a display and a selection device, the method for manipulating the results of a media archive search on the display, and including retrieving a set of items in a media search, displaying the set of items on the display, receiving a manipulation selection command indicative of the selection device pointing at a selected items of the media search and in response to the manipulation selection command, performing a manipulation action at the selected items of the media search.
  • Additional embodiments include a computer program product for manipulating the results of a media archive search, the computer program product including instructions for causing a computer to implement a method, the method including sending search terms related to one or more media archive items in the media archive, receiving search results from the media archive, displaying the search results on the display, sending manipulation commands, performing manipulation operations based on the manipulation commands, displaying modified search results on the screen based on the manipulation operations and identifying attributes for each of the one or more archive items.
  • Additional features and advantages are realized through the techniques of the present invention. Other embodiments and aspects of the invention are described in detail herein and are considered a part of the claimed invention. For a better understanding of the invention with the advantages and the features, refer to the description and to the drawings.
  • Exemplary embodiments include a method and system for enhancing the user interfaces used for searching media archives, enabling media archive searches and precise random access based on the positions of the search terms in the voice stream. The method and system also enable users to remove streams found irrelevant, re-rank media streams in the result set, zoom into certain streams and keep only a fragment of the stream in the final result set, which can be a result of accessing the returned media streams. The method and system can further create new streams from the concatenation of existing streams or stream fragments, annotating both original and new streams and saving the result of these user actions for future access or for sharing it with other users of the media archive.
  • illustrates a system 100 for manipulating the results of searching media archives. In exemplary embodiments, the system 100, having a media search application 112, is part of a client-server architecture. The client (i.e., the application 112) can be a browser-based application residing on a general purpose computer 101. The server side, which can be in communication with a network 165, is responsible for the interaction with the media archive while the client component implements the user interface. In exemplary embodiments, the application 112 can be distributed over the client side and the server side. For illustrative purposes, the exemplary embodiments described herein are illustrated with respect to the client side. It is appreciated that the methods can be implemented across both the client and server. The server side responsible for interacting with the media archive can be implemented by one or multiple server machines. The client application 112, as a browser-based application, can be retrieved from the local client machine or, more commonly, from a server machine 170, possibly different from the servers performing the searches of the media archive.
  • In exemplary embodiments, users initiate media searches by providing the search terms used to form the Boolean query, which is sent over the network 165 to the server component for execution. Search results, which include reference to the media streams in the archive, static metadata related to each of the streams (stream title, author, date, length, and annotations), and dynamic metadata (e.g., position(s) of the search terms in the said streams, transcript fragments surrounding search terms) are returned to the client component. Using the values returned by the server and user preferences, the client component constructs the result screen. User preferences determine the order in which the streams are displayed (e.g., by their rank in the result set, increasing/decreasing length, by date, by title or by author), the static metadata that is displayed, and which of the received dynamic metadata elements are displayed and their display format (e.g., if transcript fragment surrounding the search terms are displayed, length of fragments, analyzed used to filter said fragments). User preferences can be static while the best representation of the search results is dependent on the results of the search. Furthermore, transcript errors lead to incorrect relevance ranking, and false positives, which reduce precision, as defined by true positives divided by the sum of true and false positives. In addition, transcript errors often lead to false negatives, which reduce recall, i.e., percentage of relevant items retrieved by the Boolean search. False negatives are likely when the searched terms occur only once or a few times in the recording and all instances of the searched terms are translated incorrectly. To increase recall, users typically make searches more inclusive, which lowers precision. As a result, the search result (or ranked) set is large and users need help in locating the relevant items. In exemplary embodiments, users can dynamically customize the result screen using domain specific information or information collected from listening to fragments of the retrieved streams. The customization enables listening to a series/collection of recordings on a desired topic or for sharing a collection of (one or more) podcasts with colleagues as part of a collaborative activity. Customization of search results includes but it is not limited to: reordering the elements in the result set, extending the result set with stream fragments, removing elements of the result set, setting the visibility of various search terms marking the streams in the results set, and editing the transcript fragments associated with the search terms (e.g., to compensate for the transcriber's inability to identify out-of-the-vocabulary terms, start of a sentence).
  • The exemplary methods described herein can be implemented in software (e.g., firmware), hardware, or a combination thereof. In exemplary embodiments, the methods described herein are implemented in software, as an executable program, and is executed by a special or general-purpose digital computer, such as a personal computer, workstation, minicomputer, or mainframe computer. The system 100 therefore includes the general-purpose computer 101. Other embodiments include a software implementation with the client and server components running on the same machine or a monolithic software implementation, with the previously described client and server functionality implemented in one application running on a personal computer.
  • In exemplary embodiments, in terms of hardware architecture, as shown in , the computer 101 includes a processor 105, memory 110 coupled to a memory controller 115, and one or more input and/or output (I/O) devices 140, 145 (or peripherals) that are communicatively coupled via a local input/output controller 135. The input/output controller 135 can be, for example but not limited to, one or more buses or other wired or wireless connections, as is known in the art. The input/output controller 135 may have additional elements, which are omitted for simplicity, such as controllers, buffers (caches), drivers, repeaters, and receivers, to enable communications. Further, the local interface may include address, control, and/or data connections to enable appropriate communications among the aforementioned components.
  • The processor 105 is a hardware device for executing software, particularly that stored in memory 110. The processor 105 can be any custom made or commercially available processor, a central processing unit (CPU), an auxiliary processor among several processors associated with the computer 101, a semiconductor based microprocessor (in the form of a microchip or chip set), a macroprocessor, or generally any device for executing software instructions.
  • The memory 110 can include any one or combination of volatile memory elements (e.g., random access memory (RAM, such as DRAM, SRAM, SDRAM, etc.)) and nonvolatile memory elements (e.g., ROM, erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM), electronically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM), programmable read only memory (PROM), tape, compact disc read only memory (CD-ROM), disk, diskette, cartridge, cassette or the like, etc.). Moreover, the memory 110 may incorporate electronic, magnetic, optical, and/or other types of storage media. Note that the memory 110 can have a distributed architecture, where various components are situated remote from one another, but can be accessed by the processor 105.
  • The software in memory 110 may include one or more separate programs, each of which comprises an ordered listing of executable instructions for implementing logical functions. In the example of , the software in the memory 110 includes the media archives search manipulation methods described herein in accordance with exemplary embodiments and a suitable operating system (OS) 111. The operating system 111 essentially controls the execution of other computer programs, such the media archives search manipulation systems and methods described herein, and provides scheduling, input-output control, file and data management, memory management, and communication control and related services.
  • The media archives search manipulation methods described herein may be in the form of a source program, executable program (object code), script, or any other entity comprising a set of instructions to be performed. When a source program, then the program needs to be translated via a compiler, assembler, interpreter, or the like, which may or may not be included within the memory 110, so as to operate properly in connection with the OS 111. Furthermore, the media archives search manipulation methods can be written as an object oriented programming language, which has classes of data and methods, or a procedure programming language, which has routines, subroutines, and/or functions.
  • In exemplary embodiments, a conventional keyboard 150 and mouse 155 can be coupled to the input/output controller 135. Other output devices such as the I/O devices 140, 145 may include input devices, for example but not limited to a printer, a scanner, microphone, and the like. Finally, the I/O devices 140, 145 may further include devices that communicate both inputs and outputs, for instance but not limited to, a network interface card (NIC) or modulator/demodulator (for accessing other files, devices, systems, or a network), a radio frequency (RF) or other transceiver, a telephonic interface, a bridge, a router, and the like. The system 100 can further include a display controller 125 coupled to a display 130. In exemplary embodiments, the system 100 can further include a network interface 160 for coupling to a network 165. The network 165 can be an IP-based network for communication between the computer 101 and any external server, client and the like via a broadband connection. The network 165 transmits and receives data between the computer 101 and external systems. In exemplary embodiments, network 165 can be a managed IP network administered by a service provider. The network 165 may be implemented in a wireless fashion, e.g., using wireless protocols and technologies, such as WiFi, WiMax, etc. The network 165 can also be a packet-switched network such as a local area network, wide area network, metropolitan area network, Internet network, or other similar type of network environment. The network 165 may be a fixed wireless network, a wireless local area network (LAN), a wireless wide area network (WAN) a personal area network (PAN), a virtual private network (VPN), intranet or other suitable network system and includes equipment for receiving and transmitting signals.
  • If the computer 101 is a PC, workstation, intelligent device or the like, the software in the memory 110 may further include a basic input output system (BIOS) (omitted for simplicity). The BIOS is a set of essential software routines that initialize and test hardware at startup, start the OS 111, and support the transfer of data among the hardware devices. The BIOS is stored in ROM so that the BIOS can be executed when the computer 101 is activated.
  • When the computer 101 is in operation, the processor 105 is configured to execute software stored within the memory 110, to communicate data to and from the memory 110, and to generally control operations of the computer 101 pursuant to the software. The media archives search manipulation methods described herein and the OS 111, in whole or in part, but typically the latter, are read by the processor 105, perhaps buffered within the processor 105, and then executed.
  • As will be appreciated by one skilled in the art, aspects of the present invention may be embodied as a system, method or computer program product. Accordingly, aspects of the present invention may take the form of an entirely hardware embodiment, an entirely software embodiment (including firmware, resident software, micro-code, etc.) or an embodiment combining software and hardware aspects that may all generally be referred to herein as a “circuit,” “module” or “system.” Furthermore, aspects of the present invention may take the form of a computer program product embodied in one or more computer readable medium(s) having computer readable program code embodied thereon.
  • Any combination of one or more computer readable medium(s) may be utilized. The computer readable medium may be a computer readable signal medium or a computer readable storage medium. A computer readable storage medium may be, for example, but not limited to, an electronic, magnetic, optical, electromagnetic, infrared, or semiconductor system, apparatus, or device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing. More specific examples (a non-exhaustive list) of the computer readable storage medium would include the following: an electrical connection having one or more wires, a portable computer diskette, a hard disk, a random access memory (RAM), a read-only memory (ROM), an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM or Flash memory), an optical fiber, a portable compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM), an optical storage device, a magnetic storage device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing. In the context of this document, a computer readable storage medium may be any tangible medium that can contain, or store a program for use by or in connection with an instruction execution system, apparatus, or device.
  • A computer readable signal medium may include a propagated data signal with computer readable program code embodied therein, for example, in baseband or as part of a carrier wave. Such a propagated signal may take any of a variety of forms, including, but not limited to, electro-magnetic, optical, or any suitable combination thereof. A computer readable signal medium may be any computer readable medium that is not a computer readable storage medium and that can communicate, propagate, or transport a program for use by or in connection with an instruction execution system, apparatus, or device.
  • Program code embodied on a computer readable medium may be transmitted using any appropriate medium, including but not limited to wireless, wireline, optical fiber cable, RF, etc., or any suitable combination of the foregoing.
  • Computer program code for carrying out operations for aspects of the present invention may be written in any combination of one or more programming languages, including an object oriented programming language such as Java, Smalltalk, C++ or the like and conventional procedural programming languages, such as the “C” programming language or similar programming languages. The program code may execute entirely on the user's computer, partly on the user's computer, as a stand-alone software package, partly on the user's computer and partly on a remote computer or entirely on the remote computer or server. In the latter scenario, the remote computer may be connected to the user's computer through any type of network, including a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN), or the connection may be made to an external computer (for example, through the Internet using an Internet Service Provider).
  • Aspects of the present invention are described below with reference to flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams of methods, apparatus (systems) and computer program products according to embodiments of the invention. It will be understood that each block of the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, and combinations of blocks in the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, can be implemented by computer program instructions. These computer program instructions may be provided to a processor of a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a machine, such that the instructions, which execute via the processor of the computer or other programmable data processing apparatus, create means for implementing the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
  • These computer program instructions may also be stored in a computer readable medium that can direct a computer, other programmable data processing apparatus, or other devices to function in a particular manner, such that the instructions stored in the computer readable medium produce an article of manufacture including instructions which implement the function/act specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
  • The computer program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer, other programmable data processing apparatus, or other devices to cause a series of operational steps to be performed on the computer, other programmable apparatus or other devices to produce a computer implemented process such that the instructions which execute on the computer or other programmable apparatus provide processes for implementing the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
  • The flowchart and block diagrams in the Figures illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operation of possible implementations of systems, methods and computer program products according to various embodiments of the present invention. In this regard, each block in the flowchart or block diagrams may represent a module, segment, or portion of code, which comprises one or more executable instructions for implementing the specified logical function(s). It should also be noted that, in some alternative implementations, the functions noted in the block may occur out of the order noted in the figures. For example, two blocks shown in succession may, in fact, be executed substantially concurrently, or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality involved. It will also be noted that each block of the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, can be implemented by special purpose hardware-based systems that perform the specified functions or acts, or combinations of special purpose hardware and computer instructions.
  • In exemplary embodiments, where the media archives search manipulation methods are implemented in hardware, the media archives search manipulation methods described herein can implemented with any or a combination of the following technologies, which are each well known in the art: a discrete logic circuit(s) having logic gates for implementing logic functions upon data signals, an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) having appropriate combinational logic gates, a programmable gate array(s) (PGA), a field programmable gate array (FPGA), etc.
  • The following figures illustrate screenshots of an exemplary user interface in accordance with exemplary embodiments. The screenshots illustrate examples of user manipulation of media search results.
  • illustrates a screenshot 200 of an example of a browser-based user interface (UI) for manipulating the results of speech archive searches. In the example, the UI can include a first query field 205, which in the example, includes the word “software”. The first query field is for selecting recordings in the archive that contain all the words in query field 205. In the particular archive being searched, one result is displayed in a first result field 210. The result illustrated is an audio recording “When will we see applications for multicore systems?” The example further illustrates that the search result can further include a score indicating a weight of the search result, which can be based on the number of times the search query word occurs in the result with respect to the total number of words in the result. The UI can further include an Add Annotation field 215, in which the user can manually add annotations to the search.
  • illustrates a screenshot 300 of an example of a browser-based UI for manipulating the results of speech archive searches, showing a two-recording result set. In this example, the user includes two words in a second query field 305 that provides a query based on any of the words entered. In the example, the words “software” and “name” are used in the query. A two-stream result is illustrated. The result “When will we see applications for multicore systems?” is shown again in the first result field 210, and a result “Short 2” is shown in a second result field 310. Each of the results includes a score. The score for “When will we see applications for multicore systems?” is different than as illustrated in . The difference in the score is a result of different relative weightings of the presence of any of the words that are used in the search query as further described herein.
  • illustrates a screenshot 400 of an example of a browser-based user interface (UI) for manipulating the results of speech archive searches, after a user manually changes the order of the streams in the result set. This example illustrates that a user can manually change the ordering of the media archive search results as further described herein.
  • illustrates a flowchart of a method 500 for manipulating the results of a media archive search in accordance with exemplary embodiments. The method 500 illustrates an example of the sequence of actions the user can perform on the results of a search on a media archive. In exemplary embodiments, these actions can be performed on the results returned by a search tool, which can be a component of the application 112 or a self-contained search tool residing on the computer 101 on the server. As such, at block 501, the search terms can be input and the search started. In exemplary embodiments, the actions can also be performed on a previously edited list of results, where the previous edits were performed by the same user or a colleague/friend/collaborator. As such, at block 502, the search results can be restored or received. An example of such a search result list is shown in , with each horizontal line representing a recording in the media archive that satisfies the Boolean query condition. More details for each recording are shown in and further described herein.
  • Referring still to , in exemplary embodiments, the user can select an action at blocks 511-516 to perform by visually inspecting the results on the display 130. The actions can include, but are not limited to removing an item at block 511, moving an item up and down at block 512, zooming an item up or down at block 513, panning an item up or down at block 514, copying an item at block 515 and creating a new item from other items at block 516. In exemplary embodiments, a user can also decide to play a segment of a media recording at block 504 and, based on the result select one of the actions at blocks 511-516, or play an additional segment of one of the media items on the display 130. In exemplary embodiments, the actions at blocks 511-516 can be performed either on the visual attributes on the display 130 at block 503 or on the heard/viewed information at block 505.
  • In exemplary embodiments, visual inspection takes into consideration a number of attributes of the media items in the result set. Some of the attributes are intrinsic of the media items and are stored in the archive together with the item. Other attributes are specific to the search action and are generated by the media search tool. Another category of attributes is generated by the user actions. Visual attributes are described with respect to .
  • In exemplary embodiments, items that the user considers to be irrelevant can be removed from the result set at block 511. This action allows the user to focus on a smaller set of results. Items can also be reordered at block 512 such that the user can focus on one group at a time or to prioritize play actions. If, for example, only a segment of a media item is deemed interesting, the user can zoom at block 513 and pan at block 514 on the relevant section. If more than one sections of an item are considered interesting, the user can create one or more copies of an item at block 515, followed by different zoom at block 513 and pan at block 514 applied to each copy.
  • In addition to copying items, the user can create new items by cut & paste operations involving one or more items at block 516. For example, a user can remove uninteresting segments from a media recording, effectively shortening it, or create a longer one from several related recordings. The aforementioned operations are virtual in the sense that no new recordings are generated; instead, each new recording is represented by the tool as a sequence of operations for the embedded media player. In exemplary embodiments, at any time, the user can select to save the modified result list for later or for sharing it with colleagues at block 520.
  • illustrates a representation of media archive search result items, which shows several result items. In exemplary embodiments, items can include one or more segments, which can be displayed in different shades of grey or color, with the shade/color of the segment representing the speaker and blanks representing quiet periods, for example. Even when speaker identities are unknown, speech-to-text systems can typically differentiate between speakers. A quick visual inspection can help the user identify the type of media item. This type of identification is very helpful for recordings with which the user is familiar.
  • In exemplary embodiments, a user can have a pattern in mind, that comes from a previous experience, such as attending the recorded event, or from a description of the event (or its recording) received from someone else. As such, in , the user has a familiarity with the results, and has an idea for the items in which she or he is looking.
  • As illustrated, a first item 601, from top to bottom, appears to be a presentation by one speaker followed by a Q&A session with three questions/comments from different people in the audience. The second item 602 appears, to the user, to be a meeting with four participants, two of which are more active than the other two, and with one of the two most active participants possibly being the host (as indicated by him/her being the first speaker in the meeting), as indicated by the varying lengths of the shaded segments. The third item 603 looks, to the user, like the recording of an interview, with short questions followed by longer answers and with the host starting and finishing the recordings, possibly with introduction- and conclusion-like sections, respectively. The fourth item 604 is a two-way meeting or phone conversation with two quiet periods, which are more likely to happen in phone conversations and the word ‘two’ in ‘two-way’ comes from a transcription system identifying two speakers. As such, the item 601 appears to be the desired recording than the remaining items. For example, the speaker in item 602 changes too often and unpredictably (not clear if there is one presenter or not). In addition, if item 603 were a presentation than the Qs were asked during the presentation not in the Q&A session. Finally, the item 604 has some quiet periods, which do not occur in a typical presentation and an almost even distribution between two speakers, which does not fit the pattern with which the user is familiar.
  • In exemplary embodiments, certain attributes, such as recording quality, can be used to infer whether an item is a recording of a phone conversation or not. If a database of speaker speech signatures is available, the speaker ID can be inferred with high probability by the speech-to-text tool(s). Other attributes, such as title, author, recording duration, date and place, may already be included in the recording file(s) (e.g., MP3 file attributes). Other may be added manually to the recording at transcription or indexing time. All these attributes are considered to be intrinsic to the recording. The “Score” attribute is generated by the tool and is dependent on the search terms used and the content of the media archive.
  • illustrates a representation of media archive search results. illustrates additional visual attributes attached to a single media item. In exemplary embodiments, the user can turn off or disable attribute types/classes at any time. The beginnings and ends of the speaker segments 711, 712, 713, 714, 715 in a recording are a type of intrinsic attributes of the recording. The positions of the search terms 701, 702, 703, 704, 705, 706, 707 in an item included in the result set of Boolean query represents an example of search-specific attribute. In addition to the term position, the tool can display the confidence attached by the speech-to-text tool to the specific term in that position. With regard to the confidence, the speech-to-text translation process is probabilistic, in which the system selects the most likely word at each point in the process. “Most likely” is based on a number, a probability, which is computed based on the recorded sound at that point in the transcription and the context, i.e., previous words, which is captured in what's called the language model. Some systems output alternative text translations together with the associated/computed probabilities.
  • As a result of user zoom and pan operations, the left and right ends of the line may represent moments in the media recording after or before its start or end, respectively. The visual attributes 721, 722 are examples of attributes generated by the user actions. Additional visual attributes 731, 732 are shown as hashed areas mark segments played by the user and are generated by the tool as a result of user actions.
  • The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the invention. As used herein, the singular forms “a”, “an” and “the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It will be further understood that the terms “comprises” and/or “comprising,” when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, element components, and/or groups thereof.
  • The corresponding structures, materials, acts, and equivalents of all means or step plus function elements in the claims below are intended to include any structure, material, or act for performing the function in combination with other claimed elements as specifically claimed. The description of the present invention has been presented for purposes of illustration and description, but is not intended to be exhaustive or limited to the invention in the form disclosed. Many modifications and variations will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. The embodiment was chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and the practical application, and to enable others of ordinary skill in the art to understand the invention for various embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated
  • The flow diagrams depicted herein are just one example. There may be many variations to this diagram or the steps (or operations) described therein without departing from the spirit of the invention. For instance, the steps may be performed in a differing order or steps may be added, deleted or modified. All of these variations are considered a part of the claimed invention.
  • While the preferred embodiment to the invention had been described, it will be understood that those skilled in the art, both now and in the future, may make various improvements and enhancements which fall within the scope of the claims which follow. These claims should be construed to maintain the proper protection for the invention first described.

Claims (20)

1. A method for manipulating the results of a media archive search, the method comprising:
sending search terms related to one or more archive items in the media archive;
receiving search results from the media archive;
displaying the search results on a display;
sending manipulation commands;
performing manipulation operations based on the manipulation commands;
displaying modified search results on the screen based on the manipulation operations; and
identifying attributes for each of the one or more archive items.
2. The method as claimed in wherein the manipulation operations include at least one of moving the one or more archive items on the display, zooming the one or more archive items on the display, panning the one or more archive items on the display, copying the one or more archive items on the display, and creating a new item from the one or more archive items.
3. The method as claimed in further comprising playing a segment of the one or more archive items.
4. The method as claimed in wherein the attributes are intrinsic qualities to the one or more archive items.
5. The method as claimed in wherein the attributes are specific to a search action based on the search terms and are generated by a search tool.
6. The method as claimed in wherein the attributes are generated by user actions.
7. The method as claimed in wherein the attributes are visual, wherein each of the one or more archive items can be displayed as segments.
8. The method as claimed in wherein the segments are identified by at least one of grey scale and color.
9. The method as claimed in wherein the segments are indentified by hash marks.
10. In a computer system having a graphical user interface including a display and a selection device, a method for manipulating the results of a media archive search on the display, the method comprising:
retrieving a set of items in a media search;
displaying the set of items on the display;
receiving a manipulation selection command indicative of the selection device pointing at a selected items of the media search; and
in response to the manipulation selection command, performing a manipulation action at the selected items of the media search.
11. The method as claimed in wherein the manipulations action include at least one of moving the one or more archive items on the display, zooming the one or more archive items on the display, panning the one or more archive items on the display, copying the one or more archive items on the display, and creating a new item from the one or more archive items.
12. The method as claimed in further comprising:
receiving a play selection signal indicative of the selection device pointing at the one or more archive items on the display; and
in response to the play selection signal playing a segment of the one or more archive items.
13. The method as claimed in wherein the attributes are intrinsic qualities to the one or more archive items.
14. The method as claimed in wherein the attributes are specific to a search action based on the search terms and are generated by a search tool.
15. The method as claimed in wherein the attributes are generated by user actions.
16. The method as claimed in wherein the attributes are visual, wherein each of the one or more archive items can be displayed as segments.
17. The method as claimed in wherein the segments are identified by at least one of grey scale and color.
18. The method as claimed in wherein the segments are indentified by hash marks.
19. A computer program product for manipulating the results of a media archive search, the computer program product including instructions for causing a computer to implement a method, the method comprising:
sending search terms related to one or more media archive items in the media archive;
receiving search results from the media archive;
displaying the search results on the display;
sending manipulation commands;
performing manipulation operations based on the manipulation commands;
displaying modified search results on the screen based on the manipulation operations; and
identifying attributes for each of the one or more archive items.
20. The system as claimed in wherein the manipulation operations include at least one of moving the one or more archive items on the display, zooming the one or more archive items on the display, panning the one or more archive items on the display, copying the one or more archive items on the display, and creating a new item from the one or more archive items.
US12/616,9032009-11-122009-11-12Manipulating results of a media archive search AbandonedUS20110113357A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application NumberPriority DateFiling DateTitle
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Applications Claiming Priority (1)

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Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
Sequenced sound manipulations Archives

Jazz Glossary

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W   

A

a cappella - Sung without instrumental accompaniment....

AABA - The most common popular song form. *...

accent - A note or tone that is given stress by volume or attack....

acid jazz - Music for dancing, first heard in the 1980s, that combines elements of soul jazz, funk, and hip hop, and mixes acoustic and electric instruments. (See also groove and club jazz.)...

ad lib - Also "ad libitum." A notation on written music that gives the performer freedom to vary the notes or tempo; in jazz it typically means to improvise freely....

air check - A musical radio broadcast that was originally recorded for distribution to other stations; radio broadcasts that people have recorded off the radio that are sometimes released commercially or bootlegged....

all-in - The last chorus (in older jazz), often louder and more vigorous than the rest, and played by the ensemble....

altered chord - A dominant chord that has the 5th or 9th raised or lowered by a single semi-tone....

alternate takes - The various takes recorded of a piece of music at a single recording session, that for whatever reasons were not chosen to be used. (A version recorded on a different day is not an alternate take.)...

arco - Playing a string instrument with the bow, instead of pizzicato....

arpeggio - Sounding the individual notes of a chord quickly, one at a time, usually starting at the lowest note....

arrangement - An adaptation of a musical composition. Arrangements may be as minimal as a bass line or as complex as a full orchestral score. An arranger may take such great liberties with the original piece that it becomes a new composition....

arranger - A person who writes arrangements....

arrhythmic - Without an obvious beat....

articulation - The style in which a tone is produced, i.e., with slurs, staccato, variations in volume, and the like....

atonal - Without a tonal center....

attack - The manner in which a tone is articulated....

avant-garde jazz - A term loosely applied to various forms of "experimental" jazz first heard in the 1950s, and their later offshoots, especially in the sixties and seventies (see free jazz)...

ax - Also "axe." Any musical instrument....

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B

back beat - A rhythmic device in which the second and fourth beat of a measure is heavily emphasized in 4/4 time. _Black Bottom Stomp_ (1926), Jelly Roll Morton & His Red Hot Peppers: Your browser does not support the audio element. _Black...

ballad - A slow song, usually of a romantic nature; sometimes used for any song of the AABA or similar popular song form....

bar - Also known as measure. A grouping of beats, that establishes the meter of a piece of music....

barrelhouse - An older style of piano, rough, loud, and appropriate to playing in noisy bars and dance halls....

bass drum - Also "kick drum." The largest and lowest-pitched drum of the drum set, and played with a foot pedal....

beat - A heard or felt pulse of a piece of music....

bebop - Also "bop." A style of jazz characterized by long flowing melodic lines, irregular accents, non-symmetrical written themes, and elaborated harmonies; first heard c. 1943....

behind the beat - Playing slightly behind the beat as articulated by the rhythm section or implied by the ensemble....

big band - An orchestra of more than 10 members....

bitonality - The use of two different keys at once....

block chords - A series of chords with wide voicings that move in parallel motion. (See also locked hands.)...

blow - To improvise (on any instrument); to play....

blue notes - (1) Pitches in the scale that can be flattened or sharpened within the blues scale; (2) tones that are bent or changed to increase the expressivity of the music, not simply to alter the scale....

blues - (1) A 12-bar form built on the I, IV, and V chords; (2 ) a scale with a flatted third, fifth, and perhaps a seventh; (3) a poetic form; (4) a way of articulating tones; (5) a set of verbal...

bolero - Originally, a Cuban mid-tempo form played by guitar trios; now more generally a slower and more sentimental form (Latin)....

bombs - Irregular bass drum accents (typical of bebop drummers)....

boogaloo - Also bugalú. A rhythm and blues and soul-influenced Latin form originated in the United States and characterized by elements of mambo and chachachá with an added back beat....

boogie woogie - A style of piano blues based on strong left hand eighth note figures. First heard in the late 1920s, but popular throughout the 1940s....

book - The repertoire of a band or singer....

boot it - To play with energy and excitement (early jazz)....

bootleg - Recordings or made or sold without the permission of the performers or a recording company....

bop - See bebop....

bossa nova - A Brazilian jazz/pop music form derived from the samba (originated c. 1960), influenced by cool jazz, and usually played quietly, with minimal percussion....

bounce - A light, medium fast tempo piece (swing era)....

box - A piano; a guitar....

break - A short suspension of rhythm or the flow of the music (usually of a four or eight beat duration) while the soloist or melody instruments continue playing....

bridge - The third group of eight-bars in a thirty-two bar chorus (see popular song form); also known as the channel, the middle-eight or the B-section....

brushes - Drum sticks with wire brushes on the end, sued to produce a quieter, scratching sound....

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C

call-and-response - An antiphonal pattern common to jazz and all African American folk music, with a "call" played by a soloist and "answered" by the ensemble....

chachacha - Also "chachachá." A mambo and/or danzón-derived rhythmic style and dance form (Latin)....

changes - A series of chords; the harmonic structure of a piece of music; the chords for a particular melody....

charanga - Originally a Cuban orchestra of a flute, violins, and rhythm section, now more often with brass instruments added....

chart - A musical arrangement....

chase - A series of short musical passages (trading fours or twos) played by several players at a fast tempo....

Chicago style jazz - A style of small band jazz popular in Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that derived from New Orleans style, but emphasized greater solo space, fixed ensembles, and a more prominent role for the rhythm section....

chops - Technical ability; the lips of a brass player....

chord - The simultaneous sounding of three or more tones....

chord progression - See changes....

chorus - The refrain or the main body of a popular song. See popular song forms....

chromaticism - The use of all 12 tones of a scale...

circle of fifths - A series of twelve perfect fifths that circle back to the original tone....

circular breathing - A technique used by wind instrument players and singers to produce a continuous stream of notes without stopping for air. (The air is inhaled through the nose simultaneously while the mouth continues to produce musical sounds.)...

clave - A five-beat pattern that underlies all salsa music....

claves - A pair of wooden sticks used to play the clave pattern (Latin)....

coda - The conclusion to a piece of music that functions like a summing-up, or an afterthought. A short coda is called a tag....

collective improvisation - Simultaneous improvisation by several musicians (most often heard in early jazz and free jazz)....

combo - A small instrumental group of fewer than ten musicians....

comping - The pattern of rhythmic placement of harmony used by keyboardists and guitarists while accompanying soloists....

conjunto - "Combo": a band of guitar, tres, bass, bongos, trumpets, piano, percussion, and three vocalists, first formed for playing in Cuban carnival (Latin)....

contrapuntal - See counterpoint....

cool jazz - A jazz style characterized by moderate volume, quiet rhythm sections, low vibrato, and sometimes improvised counterpoint; c. 1950s. (See also West Coast jazz.)...

coro - "Chorus": the two or three-voice refrain sung against a montuno....

coro/pregón - Call-and-response between soloist and the coro (Latin). \...

counterpoint - Independent improvised or composed melodies played against each other....

cross rhythm - The simultaneous use of two or more different rhythmic patterns; a basic feature of most African American musics....

cut/cutting/carving - To outplay other musicians, usually in a jam session....

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D

danzon - Also danzón. A 19th century Cuban dance derived from European contredances; a musical form usually played by a charanga (Latin)....

descarga - A Latin jam session....

dirty tone - A description used in the in the 1920s and 1930s for horn players with a rough, noisy tone quality....

Dixieland - Also "Dixie." A term popularly applied to players (especially from the North) who continued in the New Orleans' jazz tradition....

double - The ability to play more than one instrument....

double-time - A doubling of tempo in the melody while the accompanying instruments remain at the slower tempo; or all the instruments doubling the tempo together. This is a common rhythm device in ballad playing....

down-home - Music that is honest, folk-like, and possibly funky....

downbeat - The first beat of a measure....

drone - Another name for pedal point....

drum set - Also "drum kit." A collection of drums, cymbals, and various other percussion instruments played by a single drummer; includes a bass drum, tom-toms, snare drum, hi-hat cymbal, ride cymbal, etc....

dub - A copy of another recording....

dynamics - Different degrees of volume and intensity....

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E

EAI - Electroacoustic improvisation; a term that may be used to include such styles and processes also known as "reductionist," "Onkyo," "minimal," and "lowercase" improvised music....

ear, play by - Playing an instrument without written music....

eight-to-the-bar - Boogie-woogie rhythm....

extended harmony - Notes added to a chord beyond the octave, for example, 9th, 11th, and 13th chords....

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F

fake - To play without written music....

fake book - A book of music that contains only the melodies and chord progressions of popular songs and well-known jazz compositions....

false fingering - A technique of altered finger placement that produces tones or density of sound on horns that are not available by orthodox techniques....

fills - Short improvised passages behind a soloist or between sections of a piece of music....

flag waver - A spectacular (and usually up-tempo) piece of music (swing era)....

flatted fifth - The lowering (by a half-step) of the fifth degree of a chord; a device especially associated with early bebop....

formulaic improvisation - The use of a wide variety of elements (including favorite licks or fragments, manipulations of intervals and range, interpolated phrases, etc.) in developing a solo....

four-beat - Also playing in four. A form of rhythm organization in which all four beats are relatively equal. Four-beat was especially common in the swing era and afterwards, but was also found in earlier jazz....

free jazz - A cluster of jazz styles (post-1954) that minimize the importance of a fixed beat and a given harmonic structure, and emphasize the sound and texture of music....

front line - The horns; all the instruments but the rhythm section....

funk - Also "funky." A loose term for music that draws from blues- or gospel-based harmony, rhythm, and melody; also (since the 1960s) a complex, bass and rhythm guitar-driven, sometimes three-against-four pattern, with horns used in rhythm patterns and shouted vocals....

fusion - A group of styles of jazz that merged post-bop music with soul, rock, and sometimes funk in an amplified form. First heard in the late 1960s in Miles Davis's In A Silent Way and Bitches Brew (when it was called...

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G

ghost note - A note that is fingered on a wind instrument but blown so lightly as to be inaudible; on a musical transcription, a note that may or may not be in the original....

glissando - Sliding or slurring from one note to the next quickly....

groove - A repeated pattern in the rhythm section most common in funk playing; a repeated rhythm pattern that creates the dominant feel of a piece....

guajeo - A riff played by the strings in a charanga, or the tres in a conjunto; also repeated horn lines (Latin)....

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H

half-time - A rhythmic device in which the melody continues at a fixed tempo while the accompanying instruments double the tempo....

hard bop - A loose term for a large variety of jazz styles that appeared after bebop in the 1950s....

harmony - Simultaneous sounding of two or more tones....

head arrangement - A musical arrangement made up (usually collectively) during a performance....

hi-hat cymbal - Two cymbals on a single rod that snap together when operated by a foot pedal....

hocket - The division of a melody into separate parts for different voices or instruments, resulting in a kind of cross-talk....

homophony - An individualized and loose form of unison, especially in early jazz....

honk - A low note played loudly on a reed instrument. (See also overblowing)....

hot - Hot jazz (as distinct from the music of sweet bands or commercial music) was a name for early jazz....

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I

improvisation - Music created in the moment of performance, without written scores or played from memory....

interlude - A passage connecting sections of a composition....

interpolations - See quote....

interval - The distance between two tones....

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J

jam session - Also "jamming." The most informal of jazz arrangements, and one which depends solely on the shared knowledge of the players. It was once a common practice among jazz musicians, often occurring after hours, in clubs or spaces set aside for...

jive - Doubletalk; deceptive speech; fakery in playing; also once a popular name for the music during the swing era....

jump - Also "jump band." A sub-style of swing played by small bands in the late 1930s and 1940s that combined strong rhythms, riff tunes, blues, and pop songs. A precursor to rhythm and blues....

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K

Kansas City style - Pre-swing and swing music from Midwestern and Southwestern bands that emphasized larger ensembles, saxophone sections, the blues, riff melodies, and strong walking bass....

key - A scale; the first note of a scale....

kick it off - To set a tempo and start a performance by "stomping" it off, or otherwise signaling it....

killer-diller - An exciting (or difficult to play) piece of music (swing era)....

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L

lay back - To create an effect by falling behind the rhythm....

lay out - To temporarily cease playing while others continue....

lead - The melody or top part of an arrangement; a part played by a lead trumpet, lead alto saxophone, etc....

lead sheet - A piece of music in its simplest form: melody, words, and harmony....

left hand/right hand - A distinction made by drummers' and pianists' for the use of different hands....

legato - Performing with a minimal break between tones....

licks - Short musical ideas that are regularly repeated in the improvisations of a particular soloist. See formulaic improvisation....

Lindy Hop - Also "Jitterbug." A popular dance that drew on a number of African American popular dances, including tap, the Charleston, the Texas Tommy, and others, and reached its peak in the 1930s and 1940s. It was a form of choreographed swing,...

line - A melody; one of the voices, such as bass line or melody line...

lip - The strength and ability of brass players to execute music, especially high notes....

locked hands - A form of chord voicing for piano in which the left and right hands of a pianist moving together closely and in parallel, the left hand doubling the same chord played by the right. (See also block chords.)...

lydian - A major chord or scale with a raised fourth. The composer George Russell saw the lydian as the most important jazz scale and made it the center of his theory of jazz....

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M

mainstream jazz - A name usually applied to the music played by musicians in the post-bop era who maintained a broad stylistic approach that was still in contact with earlier jazz styles....

mambo - A musical section added to the danzón form in the 1940s; a musical form with heavy jazz influence developed in the 1940s and 1950s (Latin)....

matrix number - Numbers and letters stamped near the center of a 78 RPM recording indicate the number of the take on the record....

measure - A grouping of beats, which indicates the meter of a particular piece of music. (See also bar)....

medium tempo - One of the three basic tempos of jazz, between ballad and up-tempo....

melisma - Melodic ornamentation by the use of more than one tone in singing a syllable....

meter - A grouping of beats based on their repeating patterns. The pattern of note accents and values for a section or the whole of a piece of music (see bar, measure)....

microtone - An interval smaller than a half tone....

MIDI - Musical Instrument Digital Interface: An electronic standard by which musical information can be exchanged between synthesizers and computers....

modal jazz - Jazz played with slower moving harmonies; playing based on older modal scales, drones, or pedal points....

mode - The pitches within the octave that make up the melodic material of a performance or composition; a scale....

modulation - The change of key (or a change in rhythm) within a musical piece....

moldy fig - A 1940s modern jazz fan's derogatory term for a fan of traditional jazz....

montuno - A repeated two- or three-chord pattern on the piano played behind the coro and instrumental solos (Latin)....

motivic improvisation - The use of a few short fragments or elements of melody in developing a solo....

multi-instrumentalism - Playing instruments of different types as a means of expanding a musician's creative possibilities...

multiphonics - A wind instrument or vocal technique by which more than one tone is produced simultaneously. (See also overblowing.)...

mutes, hats - Devices placed over the bell of a brass instrument for altering or softening the tone....

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N

New Orleans style - Jazz that developed in the early part of the 20th century in New Orleans and rural Louisiana. These styles were variously characterized by collective improvisation, homophony, two-beat and four-beat rhythms, leads passed from one horn to another, clarinet countermelodies, tailgate...

new thing, the - A term first used to describe free jazz, c. 1961....

nonet - An orchestra of nine performers, or a piece written for such a group....

noodling - Improvising in a random and wandering manner....

nu-jazz (also electronica, jazztronica, future jazz, or electro-jazz) - A loose term for music that combines live instruments played in jazz style with electronic elements (especially those in the beat); a style developed in the 1990s...

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O

obbligato - An accompanying melody played by an instrument that fills behind a vocal or another instrumentalist. (Singer Jimmy Rushing once said, "You know the obbligato the horns play behind the singer? Bebop is the obbligato without the singer.")...

open voicing - Voicing in which the notes are widely spread...

organ chords - Basic chords, similar to those used in simple hymns....

ostinato - A melodic phrase that is repeated again and again in the same pitches....

outside/inside, playing - To play outside (or inside) of the expected harmonic framework....

overblowing - A wind instrument technique in which increased air pressure is combined with lip manipulation to extend the range of the horn and produce a variety of tones. (See also multiphonics.)...

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P

pachanga - A rhythmic style and a dance developed in the 1950s and 1960s....

pantonal - Another name for atonality....

paraphrase improvisation - Decorating and reworking a melody or parts of a melody in different forms....

passing tone - A non-harmonic note that connects other notes that are harmonic...

pedal - Also "pedal point." A tone, typically a bass tone, that is repeated or sustained while the harmony changes. (See also drone and vamp.)...

perfect fifth - An interval of seven semitones....

phrase - A natural break or unit in a melody line, similar in function to a clause in a sentence....

pickup notes - The notes leading into a tune or a chorus....

pizzicato - The plucking of strings with the fingers....

polyphony - Music of several different melodic parts that support each other....

polyrhythm - Simultaneous use of different meters....

popular song forms - The American popular song form derives from a long history of European folk song, theater music, and light opera, and was modified in America by Broadway musicals, African American folk songs, the blues, and other musics. The most common popular...

post-bop - A general term for many developments in jazz after the 1950s....

press roll - A drum roll (borrowed from marching band drumming) formed by a series of double-strokes of the drum sticks; the press roll is often used to end a phrase, or bring in or help a soloist exit....

progressive jazz - Modern jazz (c. 1945-1955); also music associated with the Stan Kenton Orchestra....

pulse - The basic beat of a performance...

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Q

quadrille - Sets of dances popular in the 19th century, often said to be one of the roots of jazz....

quote - A fragments or motive from another song or another singer or musician's improvisation inserted into an improvised solo, sometimes for humorous effect or as ironic comments....

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R

race records - Recordings produced in the 1920s-30s exclusively for African American audiences....

ragtime - A piano, vocal, and band music form (c. 1890 and later) with syncopated melodies played over regular rhythmic emphasis in a left-hand bass moving at half the melodies' speed....

refrain - The chorus at the end of every stanza in some pop songs (see pop song forms)....

register - A name for different parts of a vocalist's or an instrument's range....

rhumba (or rumba) - A Cuban musical form of various styles (Latin) based on the son....

rhythm and blues - Also "R&B." The adaptation of blues to small bands with wind instruments, and the merging of blues with riff melodies, and pop songs....

rhythm changes - The chord progression for George Gershwin's "I Got Rhythm"; commonly used as a basis for improvisation....

rhythm section - The instruments that function to provide the rhythmic foundation of a jazz group (bass, drums, keyboards, rhythm guitar, etc.) The contrast is to the saxophone section and brass sections)....

ride cymbal - A medium-sized cymbal that produces a loud and shimmering sound, and is used to set the fundamental swing pulse of most jazz performances....

riff - Short repeated melodic phrases that function rhythmically and sometimes even to undercut the harmonic structure of a musical piece....

rim shot - The sharp, loud sound made by a stick striking the head and the rim of a snare drum simultaneously....

rip - A quick upward glissando up to an intended tone....

roll - A sustained sound on the drums produced by fast alternate strokes of the drum sticks....

run - A fast descending or ascending scale or line....

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S

salsa - A hot, up-tempo U.S. blend of Cuban, jazz, Panamanian, and Puerto Rican musics....

sampler - An electronic device that allows an analog sound to be captured, digitally converted, and played back by an electronic instruments such as the keyboards or guitar....

scale - A succession of notes (usually a half tone or a whole tone apart), arranged in ascending or descending order....

scat - The use of vocables and syllables instead of words while improvising vocally....

second - The interval between two adjacent scale tones....

second line - The dancing crowd that follows a marching band in New Orleans; a rhythm associated with New Orleans street bands....

semitone - Half of the interval of a whole tone....

septeto - An Cuban orchestra developed in the late 1920s by adding a trumpet to a sexteto (Latin)....

sequencer - An electronic device that stores a series of tones to be played back later. An entire performance or composition can be built up from such sequences that have been stored and manipulated....

sexteto - A Cuban orchestra from 1920 with tres, guitar, bass, bongos, maracas, and claves (Latin)....

shake - Extreme vibrato on a brass instrument....

shed - Also "shedding." See woodshed....

shuffle - A rhythm used in earlier jazz, based on uneven triplets, and deriving from a dance step in which the feet move across the floor without being lifted....

slap-tongue - An popping effect created by striking the tongue against the mouthpiece of a reed instrument (early jazz)....

smear - A rough, often loud slide away from a tone....

smooth jazz - A later development of fusion in which elements of rhythm and blues and pop music were distilled and refined by the formulas and constraints of radio to become bright and recognizable melodies (though ironically often recorded with audiophile sensibilities in...

sock cymbal - A large cymbal, often used for the heaviest accents....

solo - An improvised section of a piece of music by a single player...

son - A classic Cuban dance and song form originated near the turn of the 20th century and continued and varied in modern Cuban-derived pop music (Latin)....

song form - See popular song forms....

soul jazz - One of the musics included under the name of hard bop (c. mid- to late 1950s). It uses speech-inflected tonality, folk, blues or church-based melodies and rhythms (frequently 6/8), the electric organ, and other elements identified with funk....

standard - An acknowledged, popular piece of music in the jazz repertory....

stock arrangement - A commercially published musical arrangement....

stop-time - A rhythmic device in which the accompanying instruments play a few notes of the rhythm with especially sharp accents, exaggerating the rhythm which, despite its name, does not stop. The "Charleston" rhythm is the most famous of stop-time figures....

Storyville - The New Orleans tenderloin district in which some of the first jazz musicians played. (Storyville was closed in 1917 by the Secretary of the Navy.)...

straight - A more accurate or "legitimate" manner of playing which sticks close to the original music; a notably "square" way of playing....

straight eights - Eighth notes played evenly....

stretch out - An opportunity to play as long as one wishes to....

stride - A style of piano playing (c. 1917-1930) with a strong left hand pattern that rapidly moves between bass notes and chords, and uses a wide range of pianistics to decorate melodies and create variations on themes....

stroll - A pianist strolls when he or she lays out and allows the rest of the rhythm section to be heard....

sweet band - A group that plays music that avoids jazz style (swing era) and plays it straight....

swing - (1) Playing with "swing eighth notes"; (2) a form of syncopation, specifically off-beat accentuation, putting emphasis just before or after an expected beat, or emphasizing an unexpected beat; (3) a style of jazz popular in the 1930s and 1940s played...

swing eighth notes - See swing....

syncopation - The accenting of weak beats; a momentary disturbance of a regular rhythm. (See cross rhythm.)...

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T

tag - See coda....

tailgate - A style of trombone playing in early jazz that emphasized bass notes and the ability to play portamentos or "slurs."...

talk - To "tell a story" or "say something" on an instrument: speech-inflected instrumental playing....

tango - An Argentine dance form and music with roots in the 19th century that spread across the world in the early 20th century and now exists in various forms and styles....

tape loop - A loop of recording tape that repeats a sound or sequence of sounds....

tempo - The speed at which a piece of music is moving....

third stream jazz - A form of music that uses both jazz and classical techniques and forms (especially in the late-1950s)....

timbre - The quality of a tone or tones....

time - A general term for meter, but also the way in which drummers play meter....

tipico - "Typical," 'traditional," or "characteristic": a term used to identify popular forms of music with roots in the past of a number of Latin countries and regions....

tonality - Chords and their relationships; the organization of music around a single tone, the tonic....

tone - A single sound, its pitch, volume, timbre, and duration....

tone cluster - Three or more adjacent tones sounded simultaneously....

tonic - The key note of a musical piece; the first note of a scale....

top - The starting point of a chorus or a piece of music....

trad - A general term for traditional music, music of the 1900s to 1920s....

trading eights - Also "trading fours," etc. Soloists taking turns at improvising, playing for eight (or four, etc.) bars at a time....

transcription - An arrangement of a piece of music for an instrument or voice for which it was not originally intended....

tumbao - A repeated bass or left-hand piano pattern; various patterns usually played by the bongos. Along with the clave, the tumbao forms the basis of Cuban-derived music....

turnaround - Also "turn back." The short chord pattern just before the musicians must "turnaround" to play the same larger passage again....

turning the beat around - Also "turning the rhythm section around." To lose the beat, either by mistake, or to briefly heighten tension before returning to the beat....

two-beat - Also "playing in two." A form of rhythm organization in which the first and third beats of the bar are emphasized (particularly by the bass), often leaving the second and fourth beats silent, with a resulting "boom-chick" feel. Two-beat was...

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U

up tempo - The fastest of the jazz tempos....

up-beat - One or more notes at the beginning of a melody that begin before the first bar line....

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V

vamp - A repeated chord progression or rhythmic figure leading either into or out of a tune or composition....

verse - An introductory section at the beginning of some pop songs (especially older songs) that leads to the refrain (see Pop Song Forms)....

vibrato - The rapid pulsing or wavering of a tone....

vocalese - Words set to a recorded instrumental solo improvisation....

voice - any melodic line, including bass line, melody line, and the inner voices between...

voicing - The placement of notes in a chord; the instruments that are assigned to those notes....

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W

wah wah mute/pedal - A mute used to create a laughing or talking sound on a brass instrument; a device that creates those sounds on amplified instruments such as the guitar or the electric piano...

walk - Also "walking." A strong four-beats-to-the-bar rhythm (especially when played by the bass) important to swing playing, that usually spells out the notes of the chords being played....

West Coast jazz - A cool style of jazz associated with some California musicians in the 1950s....

whole tone - An interval of a major second....

woodshed - [also know as: shedding] Rehearsing or practicing alone....

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