Diablo 2 Awesome Torrent Archives

Diablo 2 Awesome Torrent Archives

Diablo 2 Awesome Torrent Archives

Diablo 2 Awesome Torrent Archives

Items/Archive

Item hunting is the biggest joy in playing the Diablo games for many players. The item system in Diablo III is bigger and better, but it's a refinement on the system used in Diablo II, not a radical change.

The D3 Team has not yet revealed many specifics about items in D3, but we do know a few things at this point, from playing at BlizzCon , and from what the team has said in interviews.

For a list of items, check out the Known Items Listing.

Item Retrieval and Storage[edit | edit source]

Inventory semi-final, August

Finding items is nothing if you don't have anywhere to put them, and after numerous redesigns during a lengthy evolution, the near-final[1] Diablo III inventory and paper doll are seen to the right. This image is from August , and the large open space is where the Talisman is displayed. It wasn't shown in August, but was in October at Blizzcon, where the inventory remained the same.

The current inventory design is a 10x6 grid, with all items taking either 1x1 or 1x2 spaces. Most like items (scrolls, gems, potions) stack up to 10, for greater space savings. This is a much larger inventory than Diablo II offered. It's impossible to compare directly between the games, since D2 items that were 2x1, 2x2, 2x3, and 2x4 are all 1x2 in D3. That said, a typical Diablo II inventory might have held 5 large items (spears, bows, body armor, etc) and six 1x1 objects. The Diablo III inventory can hold those items and still have 44 open spaces, capable of holding, for instance, 20 more large items, plus 4 small ones.

In addition to the huge inventory, Diablo III characters will enjoy a huge stash (dimensions and visuals have not yet been revealed), plus a shared stash[2], which all of the characters on an account have access to. This will make it easy to pass items between your characters, either for use or to mule them.

Picking up items is much the same in Diablo III, with one great improvement. Gold is now picked up automatically; characters need just walk near a stack to grab it. Items are not picked up automatically, since the developers think that choosing what you want to grab is an integral part of the game.[3]

Personal Item Drops[edit | edit source]

One improvement there is the private drops; each character in a multiplayer game only sees the items drop that they can pick up. No other players sees "your" items, and you do not see theirs, so there will be no more "ninja-looting," where quick players dart in and grab everything before you get a chance.

As a result of that feature, players will actually see a lot fewer items drop in multiplayer games, so there will be less overall ground clutter. You won't see 1/4 the items in a 4-player game, since almost all players will still see an item drop from every boss, but you will see fewer items from regular monsters. This isn't necessarily a bad thing in terms of useful items, since those mostly come from bosses and chests. It just means we'll see less junk, with fewer cracked sashes and many, many fewer potions dropping.

Items on the Ground[edit | edit source]

Items glow color-coded on the ground.

Locating items once they're dropped is easier in Diablo III. Items show a hover tag when they first fall, and while that goes away after a few seconds, it can be brought back by using the Alt key to show the hover tag for every item within visual range. Players can change those default settings, as well as make other modifications to the display and function. Bashiok explained some of these controls in a forum post in July [4]

We have a few different options you can pick from to display item names while they’re on the ground.

The default option is that names will show for 10 seconds when the item drops, and then the name fades out. You can hit Alt again to show them for another 10 seconds. (Diablo III default)

You can also forgo showing item names automatically when they drop and choose to just use Alt to show item names while it’s held down. (classic functionality)

You can also choose to always show item names, and hold Alt to hide them. (I’m not sure how useful this is, but it’s there) There’s also an option to make Alt toggle showing item names on/off. (my personal favorite)

We’re also looking to bring back the /nopickup option from Diablo II, but it’s currently a nice-to-have feature and so may not make initial release.

Additionally you can rebind any and all keys in the game, so you can easily make something like the Tab (for example) key show item names instead of Alt, if you prefer.

There will not be an auto-pickup option, or any way to block the display of "junk" items, as the developers feel that pausing to view the gear on the ground, and clicking to pick up the good stuff, is part of the gameplay and skill, and they do not want to automate everything. Nor will they be allowing player-made mods to do this.

Besides the hover tag names on items, the actual items themselves have a glow of the appropriate color, making them more visible, especially in darker dungeons. Rare items glow yellow, magical glow blue, and so on, as seen in the screenshot collage to the right.

Item Buying and Selling[edit | edit source]

NPC merchant interface, Blizzcon

Little has been revealed thus far about item buying and selling. The basic interface is similar to what was seen in Diablo II, with the items pictured in a grid in the NPC merchant's inventory; the item graphic is displayed, along with the stats.

It was thought that only Artisans would buy or sell items, but a roaming, minor-quest NPC was seen in the Blizzcon demo. After the player completed a short quest for his benefit, he offered to buy and sell items, right out in the dungeon. His interface is seen to the right. This quest will differ in the final game from what it was in the Blizzcon demo, but it seems that this is a preview of the sort thing players will see in the game, with portable item sales out in the dungeon for speed and convenience.

Nothing is yet known about the quality of items that will be sold by the NPC merchants. In Diablo and Diablo II it was possible to obtain some very good quality items (even high quality end game gear) from merchants, on the rare occasion that a desired modifier turned up on a good item type. This may or may not be the case in Diablo II; the developers have said that they want a variety of item types to be top items in the game, including set, legendary, rare, and crafted items. Crafted items are made by the Artisan NPCs, but it's not known if items for sale by the Artisans, or other NPCs, will be good enough to use long term, or will just fill gaps in equipment in the short term, for low/mid level characters.

Item Quality and Color[edit | edit source]

The D3 Team has confirmed that there will be magical, rare, and unique items (now called "legendary") will be found in Diablo III. Set Items were on the fence for a long time, but were finally confirmed as in the game in early , though with some major changes in their types and function. Runewords will not return in Diablo III, as runes are placed in skills, not items.

Crafted items were hinted at for a long time, but not until August was Diablo III's crafting system and salvage cube revealed, as part of the Artisan NPC operations. Crafted items do not have a special color in Diablo II, as they become categorized as magical, rare, set, or legendary items, depending upon the recipe and the results.

Final item colors were revealed in early , and they show considerable changes from the development process:

  • Runes: Purple
  • Legendary Items: Orange
  • Rare Items: Yellow
  • Set Items: Orange
    • (Set items do not exist as a special sub-type of item in Diablo III. They are simply legendary items with some added bonuses when other items in the same set are equipped.) [5]
  • Magical Items: Blue
  • Normal Items: White
  • Junk Items: Gray
  • Quest/Lore items: Green

Socketed items do not display a special color in Diablo III, since sockets are granted by and treated like item modifiers. In theory any item with sockets would therefore be at least magical, in classification.

Item Color Changes During Development[edit | edit source]

Jay Wilson spoke on this issue in Blizzcast #8, in March [6] His comments on color confirmed various item types, while opening a whole new can of worms on the color scheme.

Jay Wilson: We've kind of gone round and round on color scheme. I know with World of Warcraft when they decided on a color scheme to fit quality, they were taking that from Diablo 2 and other MMOs, but they chose a color set that they felt was easier to read. We actually tried to emulate that for awhile, I think actually our announcement build or maybe our BlizzCon build was actually using a color scheme very similar to World of Warcraft and we generally found we just didn’t like it, it didn’t feel Diablo. So something as simple as that didn’t feel Diablo anymore.
Color scheme is pretty solid right now, it follows very closely to the Diablo 2 color scheme. We slightly shifted some of the hues to help, especially with color blindness, to try and get some of the more problematic combinations. We took out, for example, uniques were gold, we’ve changed their color I think we did purple which is a bit of a nod to World of Warcraft but the problem was gold and yellow were really close. Even though the gold lettering was unique and everything it was often very difficult to tell the two apart. So we just did that not to get away from Diablo but to try and fix that kind of readability issue. What we found is that if we try and get too far from Diablo it doesn't feel right, so right now magic items are blue, rare items are yellow, unique items I think they're purple – I'm operating off memory here but they might be different actually because I think we use purple for something else for an item type we haven’t announced yet. Then if we do set items they'll be green, we haven't made a call on set items yet.

Fans reaction was quite negative to the color change of Uniques. Most fans thought they should stay the traditional, classic gold, and that if something must change color it should be rares, switching to purple or pink or some other color that won't be confused with gold.

Fans do not always get what they want.

Top End Items[edit | edit source]

Blue (magical) item found.

What type of items will make up the end game gear is always a popular topic for fan debate. This issue came up in the March Blizzcast, in a question to Jay Wilson. [7]

Bornakk: Will there be a diverse selection of items that are viable for the end-game or will it follow the WoW-type style where there is more like one end-all-be-all set for each class?
Jay Wilson: It’s definitely diverse and it’s diverse on a lot of different fronts. When you think about Diablo 2, all the different ways you can build your character, we really expanded all the ways you can customize your character by adding in the rune system. Not only can you completely customize your skill set, much more so than you can in game like most MMOs like World of Warcraft, because of that, the items you want are based upon the skill set that you’ve chosen or the type of build that you are trying to create.
And items, one of the things we are trying to do is focus on this even greater element of defining your build. So really it's up to the player on what kind of stats they want on their character, but we're definitely not shooting for a, "oh here's the barbarian armor", there is a set and when you get the full set you're done. That's just not very Diablo and it's not really the kind of gameplay we're going for. If anything we’d like the item set to be a lot more diverse than it was in Diablo 2.


Jay said much the same thing during a Blizzcon interview: [8]

Jay Wilson: We’d like to get a mix. We would like uniques to be valuable for some builds and rares to be valuable for some builds. Ideally, we’d love to look at an in-game character and see a mix of uniques and rares. There are a couple of ways we can accomplish that. One is to look at the constraints of what a rare item could be and create some space for those items to exist that it makes them superior to uniques. Then, look at uniques and give them some specific attributes that are very hard or almost impossible to show up on rares, but then keep those item bases separate. So you go, “This unique item is really awesome for this, but there’s no belt, for example, that goes with it and so I’m going to look for a rare item to fill that slot, whatever it might be.” The other way is to really focus on unique items having a very specific roll and filling a very specific function.

Other D3 developers said much the same thing at Blizzcon [9] These are all noted so that when the final game arrives, and everyone is wearing nothing but rares, or uniques, or set items for the first six months, you can point to these quotes in the wiki and shake them overhead, like angry villagers with torches, on the heels of Frankenstein's monster.

Artisans and Crafting[edit | edit source]

August brought a major announcement, as the crafting system and Artisans were introduced. Characters in Diablo III will spend much of their time breaking down unwanted items in the salvage cube, then using the raw materials created by that process to craft new items from the recipes offered by the various artisans.

There are three artisans, each offering a wide variety of types of items, as well as crafting recipes and other item-related services. The Artisans will also give quests and information, and they travel with the player from act to act, providing the same "town" (called the Caravan) throughout the game.

Click the various linked words in this section for much more info about everything related to the Artisans.

Item Buyback[edit | edit source]

The item buyback interface.

One added feature sure to please players is the item buyback option. Anything you sell to the NPC merchants can be bought back. This isn't something players will use often, or on purpose, but that one time you misclick and accidentally sell something you wanted to keep, the buyback will be a blessing.

There does not seem to be any un-salvage option though, so be careful what you stick into the salvage cube.

Item Durability[edit | edit source]

During most of the development process there was no durability in Diablo III. The development team said they might do without it; that it was a needless inconvenience. Their thinking changed at some point, since as of the Artisan reveal in August , durability was back in the game and a major factor in item values. Durability was also said to be the only real death penalty, with a loss of it leading to heavy repair costs upon each death.

Durability is a major aspect of the end gameeconomy though, and can function as a major gold sink.

  • See the Durability page for much more discussion of this issue.

Item Rarity[edit | edit source]

Another key question about items and item components in Diablo 3: just how scarce will they be? Diablo 2 did a fairly good job making the top items hard-but-not-impossible to find, until Runes were added in D2X and blew the curve, with the higher level runes incredibly rare; far too scarce given their enormous utility in Runewords.

Though we won't have an answer to this until much later in the development process, at least in theory, we will not see useful items with such astronomical drop odds in Diablo 3. [10]

GamePlanet: So we're still going to see the same level of rarity - like with the Zod Rune that nobody ever really picks up?
Kevin Martens: That's yet to be determined. I'm not exactly sure if we're going to make it a little less rare or not. Hard to say yet, we'll keep tweaking the numbers and we'll have to do a lot of testing to find out if we're happy with things. Even if we do change it in one direction or the other, we may change it back as we're testing it.

Item Variety[edit | edit source]

A few new item types have been seen so far. Characters now wear shoulder pads and pants, in addition to all the other types of armor found in Diablo II. See the paper doll for screenshots and details.

The Monk is known to use various "fist" type weapons, reminiscent of the Diablo 2 Assassin's claws. It also appears that the Monk's melee staves may be a new variety of staff, with their thicker, studded hitting ends. The Wizard-only short staves (which can be dual wielded with an orb in the off-hand) are a separate type of item in Diablo 3; not just the lowest level type of staff.

Other than those, no new weapons have been seen thus far.


There are many changes to small items. Charms, runes, and jewels appear to be gone, but there are many more types of gems. Another new item are the skill runes, which are socketed into active skills and add bonus effects of various types. These items can not be used in items and provide no benefit except when socketed into a skill.

Bags of holding can also be found, which add additional inventory slots when equipped in special bag slots. (This feature may or may not last into the final game. Inventory space issues have changed repeatedly during development.)

If there are other new item types, new varieties of weapons or multiple levels of jewelry, it's not been announced. However, lots of the item types so popular in Diablo II were not added until the expansion; there were no jewels, charms, runes, or runewords in regulation Diablo II; those all came in the expansion pack. It is therefore conceivable that a similar amount of item types and/or varieties could be added by the team in D3 and its expansion(s).


Jay Wilson (sort of) confirmed that we would see new item types in an October interview. [11]

pachasnack.com: Are there going to be any completely new item types?
Jay Wilson: Will there be any completely new item types? Yes. *laughs* That’s all I’m going to say.
pachasnack.com: Does that mean the Monk’s fist items? Or something else.
Jay Wilson: *pauses* That’s all I’m going to say. You asked the question. “Are there going to be any new item types?” That’s all I’m going to say.

Class Specific Weapons[edit | edit source]

There are a lot of class-specific weapons in Diablo 3. There are more types of items than in Diablo 2, but a lot of them are limited to one character type, or exclude some character types. Full details have not yet been determined, but the general theory is that characters can only use items that they would normally be able to use. Barbarians can't use magical items, mage characters can't use axes, and so forth.

  • Which characters can use, or not use, which types of items has changed repeatedly during development. See the Class-Specific Weapons page for an up-to-the-minute tally, with extensive developer quotes.

Bashiok spoke on this issue, from a design standpoint, in July [12]

we do now have some restrictions on weapon types usable by each class. It’s been part of the game for a while now. Allowing every class to use every weapon type was actually going to require a huge amount of time and effort and it would have meant cutting out or cutting into other features. We evaluated really how often people would want to have their class holding a weapon type that (traditionally) contradicted their class-style versus that work going in to other features - specifically having a lot more skills and a lot more skill-rune effects. We made the obvious choice which is making sure there are a ton of awesome skills and rune effects to choose from.
Because I can see the conclusions being jumped to RIGHT NOW in my old cranium - let me state that weapon types do not dictate stats. At least not wholly (barbarians can’t use staves so there’s no point in allowing fury related stats on them). We understand that the game is about variation, customization, and experimentation in class builds. We’re not World of Warcraft, we’re not looking to make weapon stats “optimal” for the types and classes that will use them. Which is to say, we’re not going to put specific stats in specific amounts on each weapon of a specific type because we’re making assumptions about what each class wants out of their stats. We want variation, and experimentation, and all that good stuff. These restrictions don’t affect those goals, it really just means you probably won’t see a wizard lugging around a two-handed axe. Kind of a bummer, but then think about what it affords us to work on with more and better looking skills, a more robust rune-skill system, etc. We want to spend our time and effort on what makes sense to making the game better.


Blizzard has also stressed that the selections are made carefully and distinctly, and that the lists are not yet finalized.[13]

The list of what weapon types are or aren’t allowed for each class aren’t final and could change. They’re fairly logical choices and what is most commonly seen as closely tied to the hero archetypes. In our current game the wizard can’t wield a two-handed sword for instance, but can still use a one handed sword and shield if so desired.

Proving their point, this has since been changed and Wizards can now use two-handed swords.

Class Specific Armor[edit | edit source]

It's not known if there are similar limits to armor, but if so none have yet been seen, and the D3 Team has stressed that all characters will be able to wear heavy plate as well as light armor. [14]

There still aren’t any armor restriction planned. Armor is a different issue as it’s shown in much the same way as Diablo II, so more types don’t actually increase the animation/modeling costs like weapon types would.

The Diablo 2 Expansion added class-specific armors; helms that only the Druid and Barbarian could wear, as well as shields that were Paladin only. Unlike the class-specific weapons added in the expansion, the armors were cosmetic and fairly illogical; there were plenty of other helms and shields in the game, and it's not like there was something special about the shape of the Druid's or Barbarian's head.

Shields[edit | edit source]

Shields are generally considered armor, even though they are equipped in the off-hand weapon slot. Shields will be a useful item in Diablo III, but far less useful (overpowered) than they were in Diablo II. In D3, shields work like the "absorb" property on magical items; they absorb some set amount of damage from incoming attacks, with the amount varying by the type of shield, the shield's magical properties, and other factors. This means that a small shield will only absorb something like damage, so if your character takes a hit of 50 damage, the shield will hardly help you at all.

This is very different than the Diablo 2 system, where any successful block absorbed % of the physical damage of the hit. Most characters in Diablo 2 used shields since the ability to completely block up to 75% (or more with a Paladin) of incoming physical damage was enormously useful. Much more useful than the added damage from using a two-handed weapon. Without shields working so fantastically in Diablo 3, two-handed weapons should be a much more viable option.

Shield Class Limits[edit | edit source]

Which classes can and can not use shields has changed during development, and you should consult the shields page for the most up to date information.

At one point Monks could not use shields, for reasons expressed by Bashiok in a pair of forum posts in early March [15][16]

Bruce Lee would not use a shield, and neither would the monk.
We have shields. Everyone but monk can wield them.
Of course that’s subject to change.

It changed quite quickly, as a Monk was seen using socketing and wielding a shield in the Artisan Video demonstration in August

Item (Set) Visualization[edit | edit source]

comparison of the same set on wiz and barb

Gear sets are not Item Sets, i.e. the green-named collections of matching items with the same name and complimentary bonuses.

Gear sets is a term the Diablo III developers use for a matched outfit, with all the items of the same general quality level. There are 18 such gear sets in Diablo III, all of which look very different on each class. Blizzcon 's "Crafting Sanctuary" panel provided the example as seen on the right. See the Gear sets page for full details.

Bind on Pick-Up/Equip[edit | edit source]

The items in Diablo 3 will not "bind on pickup" (BoP). In other words, there won't be any items that are untradable, and that can not be dropped by a character without destroying them. The D3 Team feels that item trading and twinking is an indispensable part of the Diablo play experience, and they want to encourage trading.

That said, they are considering making the very highest end items Bind on Equip (BoE). That means that once such an item is equipped it can not be traded to or used by any other character. The point of this feature is to create some turn over amongst the end game gear. If the best items can be passed around and reused, then players will just use the same item on all of their characters, and eventually the trading market becomes clogged with the item as more and more of them are found and none are ever removed from the economy. (This is less of an issue with Hardcore characters, since there items are removed from the economy with unlooted character deaths.)

The D3 Team has said that BoE items might be bind to account, rather than to character. (It's not yet been determined.) This would let players transfer them between characters on the same account. It's unclear how useful this would be; from what we've seen of the character design thus far, items are fairly exclusive, either by class-specific type or just by only being useful for one of the classes, so it's unlikely that a player would have more than one character who could or would want to use a given high level weapon anyway. But with BoE:Account, it would at least be useful to pass around a super item between characters of the same class, with different builds. [17]

Jay Wilson: We have no “Soulbound” or bind-on-pickup, except for quest items. We do have bind-on-equip for the highest end items in the game. We targeted, roughly, any item above level These we will do as bind-on-equip. The reason for this is that we want people to be able to trade them, but we also want to remove the high-end items from the economy. One of the greatest ways that you can do that is with bind-on-equip. What we don’t want is to have a situation where you find something on the ground like, “Oh, man. This would be a perfect weapon for my Monk. Oh, but I just picked it up and now it’s on the wrong character.” We don’t want that at all.
Most of our focus on Diablo 3 is as a trading game. So, if you take trading out of the item space, you ruin the core of the game. Finding a really great item that is not for you is still a great event because it means you have a bartering tool to get the item that you do want. We definitely want to make sure that that still exists.

Quest Items BoP[edit | edit source]

There's been a fair amount of confusion about how Quest Items will bind on pickup, after Bashiok gave several unclear explanations of the feature in a series of forum posts. [18]

This is not a big deal; characters in Diablo 3 have a Quest Items tab in their inventory menu. Only quest items are stored in that window, they are automatically slotted there when picked up or received from an NPC, and they are automatically removed/used when required by the quest. The point in making them BoP is that a clueless new player might drop or throw away a quest item which would make that quest unfinishable.

Quest items can be removed, permanently, by abandoning quests. When a quest is dropped in that way, the items associated with it will vanish from the inventory window.

Inventory[edit | edit source]

The Diablo III inventory system has been overhauled repeatedly during the development process. It changed a great deal between the game's debut in June , and the Blizzcon build in October Many more changes were noted in screenshots released in March , and more changes can be expected before the final game.

See the inventory page for the latest updates and screenshots.

Item Sockets[edit | edit source]

There are item sockets in Diablo III. Runewords are not returning, but magical and rare and unique (and other yet-unannounced item types?) will have sockets.

Not much is yet known about what can be put into sockets; gems of various types have been seen in the gameplay movies and in the BlizzCon demos, but their bonus properties are unknown. No jewels have been seen, and runes in Diablo III are for socketing into skills, not items. There may be (and probably are) other things to put into item sockets, but no info has been released about them.

The CaravanBlacksmith, is an Artisan that can add sockets to shields, helms, bracers, belts and pants, but not weapons, rings, amulets or pauldrons. However, these latter items may be accessible through the blacksmith's later upgrades. The upgrade is hugely expensive compared to crafting a new item, and can be done multiple times. It does not increase their sell value but does seem to alter the appearance of the item.

Official Comments[edit | edit source]

Bashiok commented briefly on item sockets in February, [19]

We haven't released any information on our site, but it was possible to collect socketed items as well as gems in the BlizzCon demo The gem stats at this point are more or less just the basics yanked from Diablo II to get the system running and have something to play around with.

Individual Drops[edit | edit source]

One major change to items is that players only see items drop that are theirs, and theirs alone. No more of the "ninja looting" of D2, where everything that dropped was first come, first served. This results in more total items dropping, since bosses drop an item or two for every character in the area, but each character only sees their items. If that boss dropped four items in a four player game, each player would only see their item. Trading or giving items away is easy; simply pick them and then drop them. Once a character drops an item any other player can see it and may pick it up.

Official Item Comments[edit | edit source]

One of the few specific comments about items yet made by the D3 Team was made by Jay Wilson in a December interview with pachasnack.com

Jay: I believe I mentioned in the past that we are considering crafting systems. But we're not really announcing anything about that right now. But we took a few things out, like Rune Words, essentially because Rune Words is a very simple crafting system, and we're planning to do something different there. I'd say that most of the changes are minor. We've made lots of statistical changes. For example, with the more magical classes, like the Sorceress, their items were in some ways less valuable to them because they didn't have a lot of effect on their damage output, so we've added more attributes that control magic damage and things that allow Wizards to get items that do more damage and bolster their defenses and health. We have more [weapon name] affixes that play into the broader set of resources; the Barbarian has fury, so we added affixes that play with that. We generally tried to expand our approach to affixes to make them smarter.
Those are fairly simple, though. There are other things, like how we've changed the way that gems work. In Diablo 2, gems could only go on white -- or nonmagic -- items, while gems are now a separate chance for a weapon, meaning that we roll the item's base attributes, and we roll for its chance to have gem slots. So now any item, even legendary ones, can have gem slots. That plays a lot into the core of the item system [] even if you find the best item in the game, the stats on that item have some randomness to them that means there could be a better version of that item. Well, now, if you find the best item in the game but it doesn't have any gem sockets, then it's not the best version of that item. In terms of creating item variance, we're looking to enhance that within Diablo 3.
There're still a few things that we haven't made decisions on yet -- set items, for one. I didn't like the way they worked in Diablo 2, as by the time you finally got a set together, you generally leveled beyond the use for it. So you might save them for alts, which is OK, but I'd rather that they be useful for you to begin with. We haven't really decided how we're going to fix that. We also have some new item types that we haven't announced yet that are related to some systems that we're planning. But I don't think they vastly change the system -- they mostly play into the strengths of it.

Jay's comments on "gems" are a little confusing, since he seems to be using "gems" as a synonym for "sockets" in the whole answer. Apparently the only things to socket in D3 will be gems, rather than gems, jewels, and runes as in D2?

Other Item Reports[edit | edit source]

None of the many Diablo III previews have spent much time on items, or given us any specific details about them, yet. The most detailed commentary on items so far came from Flux's Wizard gameplay report, written after his BlizzCon experience:

All the low level armor was equivalent to what we’re all familiar with from D2. Blue (magical) gear with minor bonuses to attributes, mana, life, and so forth. I never saw any jewelry in the Blizzcon build (not enabled or the monsters weren’t high enough level to drop it), and since I wasn’t taking many hits (or at least trying not to) with my wizard, I wasn’t much worried about defense or defensive bonuses on armor.
I did find a few nifty wands and other light weapons, with useful mods. As was the case with my Witch Doctor, I found weapons with +% damage (around 11%) and +% experience gain (7 or 8%). Those didn’t greatly change the gameplay, but I did notice the improved damage, once I had it. Eventually (D2 style) my Wizard transitioned to magic find equipment, and while the&#;% I had from boots, shield, and chest armor with MF on it wasn’t more than about 40%, it did seem to increase the number of rares I found. Not greatly, and not to my benefit, since I kept wearing the magic items I had found earlier, but it was fun to see more shinies drop.
I didn’t find any uniques with the Wizard, nor any of the crystal ball-looking items she uses in the BlizzCon gameplay and most of her screenshots; I assume those are a higher level item type. I ended up using odd weapons; wands and clubs and short swords and the like, based entirely on their magical bonuses. And they served well enough.

More Item Information[edit | edit source]

Items of Diablo III[e]Item Basics Normal Items Crafting Legendary Armor I Legendary Armor II Legendary Weapons 1h Legendary Weapons 2h Item Sets
Источник: [pachasnack.com]
, Diablo 2 Awesome Torrent Archives

BitTorrent

Peer-to-peer file sharing protocol

BitTorrent (abbreviated to BT) is a communication protocol for peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P), that enables users to distribute data and electronic files over the Internet in a decentralized manner.

BitTorrent is one of the most common protocols for transferring large files; such as, digital video files containing TV shows and video clips, or digital audio files containing songs. P2P networks have been estimated to, collectively, account for approximately 43% to 70% of all Internet traffic (depending on location), as of February&#;[update].[2] In February , BitTorrent was responsible for % of all worldwide bandwidth—more than half of the 6% of total bandwidth dedicated to file sharing.[3]. In , BitTorrent was a dominant file sharing protocol and one of the applications that generate greater traffic on the Internet, with % of downstream, and % of upstream traffic.[4]

To send or receive files, a person uses a BitTorrent client, on their Internet-connected computer. A BitTorrent client is a computer program that implements the BitTorrent protocol. Popular clients include μTorrent, Xunlei Thunder,[5][6]Transmission, qBittorrent, Vuze, Deluge, BitComet and Tixati. BitTorrent trackers, provide a list of files available for transfer and allow the client to find peer users, known as "seeds", who may transfer the files.

Programmer Bram Cohen, a University at Buffalo alumni,[7] designed the protocol in April , and released the first available version on 2 July [8] as of June&#;[update], the most recent version was implemented in [1] BitTorrent clients are available for a variety of computing platforms and operating systems, including an official client released by BitTorrent, Inc.

As of [update], BitTorrent has 15–27&#;million, concurrent users, at any time.[9] As of January&#;[update], BitTorrent is utilized by million active users. Based on this figure, the total number of monthly users, may be estimated to more than a quarter of a billion (≈ million).[10] Torrenting may sometimes be limited by Internet Service Providers (ISPs), on legal or copyright grounds. In turn, users may choose to run seedboxes or Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), as an alternative.

Animation of protocol use: The colored dots beneath each computer in the animation represent different parts of the file being shared. By the time a copy to a destination computer of each of those parts completes, a copy to another destination computer of that part (or other parts) is already taking place between users.

Description[edit]

The middle computer is acting as a "seed" to provide a file to the other computers which act as peers.

The BitTorrent protocol can be used to reduce the server and network impact of distributing large files. Rather than downloading a file from a single source server, the BitTorrent protocol allows users to join a "swarm" of hosts to upload to/download from each other simultaneously. The protocol is an alternative to the older single source, multiple mirror sources technique for distributing data, and can work effectively over networks with lower bandwidth. Using the BitTorrent protocol, several basic computers, such as home computers, can replace large servers while efficiently distributing files to many recipients. This lower bandwidth usage also helps prevent large spikes in internet traffic in a given area, keeping internet speeds higher for all users in general, regardless of whether or not they use the BitTorrent protocol.

The first release of the Bittorrent client had no search engine and no peer exchange, so users who wanted to upload a file had to create a small torrent descriptor file that they would upload to a torrent index site. The first uploader acted as a seed, and downloaders would initially connect as peers (see diagram on the right). Those who wish to download the file would download the torrent which their client would use to connect to tracker which had a list of the IP addresses of other seeds and peers in the swarm. Once a peer completed a download of the complete file, it could in turn function as a seed.

The file being distributed is divided into segments called pieces. As each peer receives a new piece of the file, it becomes a source (of that piece) for other peers, relieving the original seed from having to send that piece to every computer or user wishing a copy. With BitTorrent, the task of distributing the file is shared by those who want it; it is entirely possible for the seed to send only a single copy of the file itself, and eventually distribute to an unlimited number of peers. Each piece is protected by a cryptographic hash contained in the torrent descriptor.[1] This ensures that any modification of the piece can be reliably detected, and thus prevents both accidental and malicious modifications of any of the pieces received at other nodes. If a node starts with an authentic copy of the torrent descriptor, it can verify the authenticity of the entire file it receives.

Pieces are typically downloaded non-sequentially, and are rearranged into the correct order by the BitTorrent client, which monitors which pieces it needs, and which pieces it has and can upload to other peers. Pieces are of the same size throughout a single download (for example a 10&#;MB file may be transmitted as ten 1&#;MB pieces or as forty &#;KB pieces). Due to the nature of this approach, the download of any file can be halted at any time and be resumed at a later date, without the loss of previously downloaded information, which in turn makes BitTorrent particularly useful in the transfer of larger files. This also enables the client to seek out readily available pieces and download them immediately, rather than halting the download and waiting for the next (and possibly unavailable) piece in line, which typically reduces the overall time of the download. This eventual transition from peers to seeders determines the overall "health" of the file (as determined by the number of times a file is available in its complete form).

The distributed nature of BitTorrent can lead to a flood-like spreading of a file throughout many peer computer nodes. As more peers join the swarm, the likelihood of a successful download by any particular node increases. Relative to traditional Internet distribution schemes, this permits a significant reduction in the original distributor's hardware and bandwidth resource costs. Distributed downloading protocols in general provide redundancy against system problems, reduce dependence on the original distributor,[11] and provide sources for the file which are generally transient and therefore there is no single point of failure as in one way server-client transfers.

Operation[edit]

A BitTorrent client is capable of preparing, requesting, and transmitting any type of computer file over a network, using the protocol. Up until , the only way to share files was by creating a small text file called a "torrent". These files contain metadata about the files to be shared and the trackers which keep track of the other seeds and peers. Users that want to download the file first obtain a torrent file for it, and connect to the tracker or seeds. In , first Vuze and then the BitTorrent client introduced distributed tracking using distributed hash tables which allowed clients to exchange data on swarms directly without the need for a torrent file. In , peer exchange functionality was added allowing clients to add peers based on the data found on connected nodes.

Though both ultimately transfer files over a network, a BitTorrent download differs from a one way server-client download (as is typical with an HTTP or FTP request, for example) in several fundamental ways:

  • BitTorrent makes many small data requests over different IP connections to different machines, while server-client downloading is typically made via a single TCP connection to a single machine.
  • BitTorrent downloads in a random or in a "rarest-first"[12] approach that ensures high availability, while classic downloads are sequential.

Taken together, these differences allow BitTorrent to achieve much lower cost to the content provider, much higher redundancy, and much greater resistance to abuse or to "flash crowds" than regular server software. However, this protection, theoretically, comes at a cost: downloads can take time to rise to full speed because it may take time for enough peer connections to be established, and it may take time for a node to receive sufficient data to become an effective uploader. This contrasts with regular downloads (such as from an HTTP server, for example) that, while more vulnerable to overload and abuse, rise to full speed very quickly, and maintain this speed throughout. In the beginning, BitTorrent's non-contiguous download methods made it harder to support "streaming playback". In , the client Popcorn Time allowed for streaming of BitTorrent video files. Since then, more and more clients are offering streaming options.

Search queries[edit]

The BitTorrent protocol provides no way to index torrent files. As a result, a comparatively small number of websites have hosted a large majority of torrents, many linking to copyrighted works without the authorization of copyright holders, rendering those sites especially vulnerable to lawsuits.[13] A BitTorrent index is a "list of .torrent files, which typically includes descriptions" and information about the torrent's content.[14] Several types of websites support the discovery and distribution of data on the BitTorrent network. Public torrent-hosting sites such as The Pirate Bay allow users to search and download from their collection of torrent files. Users can typically also upload torrent files for content they wish to distribute. Often, these sites also run BitTorrent trackers for their hosted torrent files, but these two functions are not mutually dependent: a torrent file could be hosted on one site and tracked by another unrelated site. Private host/tracker sites operate like public ones except that they may restrict access to registered users and may also keep track of the amount of data each user uploads and downloads, in an attempt to reduce "leeching".

Web search engines allow the discovery of torrent files that are hosted and tracked on other sites; examples include The Pirate Bay, Torrentz, isoHunt and BTDigg. These sites allow the user to ask for content meeting specific criteria (such as containing a given word or phrase) and retrieve a list of links to torrent files matching those criteria. This list can often be sorted with respect to several criteria, relevance (seeders-leechers ratio) being one of the most popular and useful (due to the way the protocol behaves, the download bandwidth achievable is very sensitive to this value). Metasearch engines allow one to search several BitTorrent indices and search engines at once.

The Tribler BitTorrent client was among the first to incorporate built-in search capabilities. With Tribler, users can find .torrent files held by random peers and taste buddies.[15] It adds such an ability to the BitTorrent protocol using a gossip protocol, somewhat similar to the eXeem network which was shut down in The software includes the ability to recommend content as well. After a dozen downloads, the Tribler software can roughly estimate the download taste of the user, and recommend additional content.[16]

In May , researchers at Cornell University published a paper proposing a new approach to searching a peer-to-peer network for inexact strings,[17] which could replace the functionality of a central indexing site. A year later, the same team implemented the system as a plugin for Vuze called Cubit[18] and published a follow-up paper reporting its success.[19]

A somewhat similar facility but with a slightly different approach is provided by the BitComet client through its "Torrent Exchange"[20] feature. Whenever two peers using BitComet (with Torrent Exchange enabled) connect to each other they exchange lists of all the torrents (name and info-hash) they have in the Torrent Share storage (torrent files which were previously downloaded and for which the user chose to enable sharing by Torrent Exchange). Thus each client builds up a list of all the torrents shared by the peers it connected to in the current session (or it can even maintain the list between sessions if instructed).

At any time the user can search into that Torrent Collection list for a certain torrent and sort the list by categories. When the user chooses to download a torrent from that list, the .torrent file is automatically searched for (by info-hash value) in the DHT Network and when found it is downloaded by the querying client which can after that create and initiate a downloading task.

Downloading torrents and sharing files[edit]

Users find a torrent of interest on a torrent index site or by using a search engine built into the client, download it, and open it with a BitTorrent client. The client connects to the tracker(s) or seeds specified in the torrent file, from which it receives a list of seeds and peers currently transferring pieces of the file(s). The client connects to those peers to obtain the various pieces. If the swarm contains only the initial seeder, the client connects directly to it, and begins to request pieces. Clients incorporate mechanisms to optimize their download and upload rates.

The effectiveness of this data exchange depends largely on the policies that clients use to determine to whom to send data. Clients may prefer to send data to peers that send data back to them (a "tit for tat" exchange scheme), which encourages fair trading. But strict policies often result in suboptimal situations, such as when newly joined peers are unable to receive any data because they don't have any pieces yet to trade themselves or when two peers with a good connection between them do not exchange data simply because neither of them takes the initiative. To counter these effects, the official BitTorrent client program uses a mechanism called "optimistic unchoking", whereby the client reserves a portion of its available bandwidth for sending pieces to random peers (not necessarily known good partners, so called preferred peers) in hopes of discovering even better partners and to ensure that newcomers get a chance to join the swarm.[21]

Although "swarming" scales well to tolerate "flash crowds" for popular content, it is less useful for unpopular or niche market content. Peers arriving after the initial rush might find the content unavailable and need to wait for the arrival of a "seed" in order to complete their downloads. The seed arrival, in turn, may take long to happen (this is termed the "seeder promotion problem"). Since maintaining seeds for unpopular content entails high bandwidth and administrative costs, this runs counter to the goals of publishers that value BitTorrent as a cheap alternative to a client-server approach. This occurs on a huge scale; measurements have shown that 38% of all new torrents become unavailable within the first month.[22] A strategy adopted by many publishers which significantly increases availability of unpopular content consists of bundling multiple files in a single swarm.[23] More sophisticated solutions have also been proposed; generally, these use cross-torrent mechanisms through which multiple torrents can cooperate to better share content.[24]

Creating and publishing torrents[edit]

The peer distributing a data file treats the file as a number of identically sized pieces, usually with byte sizes of a power of 2, and typically between 32&#;kB and 16&#;MB each. The peer creates a hash for each piece, using the SHA-1 hash function, and records it in the torrent file. Pieces with sizes greater than &#;kB will reduce the size of a torrent file for a very large payload, but is claimed to reduce the efficiency of the protocol.[25] When another peer later receives a particular piece, the hash of the piece is compared to the recorded hash to test that the piece is error-free.[1] Peers that provide a complete file are called seeders, and the peer providing the initial copy is called the initial seeder. The exact information contained in the torrent file depends on the version of the BitTorrent protocol.

By convention, the name of a torrent file has the suffix . Torrent files have an "announce" section, which specifies the URL of the tracker, and an "info" section, containing (suggested) names for the files, their lengths, the piece length used, and a SHA-1hash code for each piece, all of which are used by clients to verify the integrity of the data they receive. Though SHA-1 has shown signs of cryptographic weakness, Bram Cohen did not initially consider the risk big enough for a backward incompatible change to, for example, SHA BitTorrent is now preparing to move to SHA

In the early days, torrent files were typically published to torrent index websites, and registered with at least one tracker. The tracker maintained lists of the clients currently connected to the swarm.[1] Alternatively, in a trackerless system (decentralized tracking) every peer acts as a tracker. Azureus was the first[26] BitTorrent client to implement such a system through the distributed hash table (DHT) method. An alternative and incompatible DHT system, known as Mainline DHT, was released in the Mainline BitTorrent client three weeks later (though it had been in development since )[26] and subsequently adopted by the μTorrent, Transmission, rTorrent, KTorrent, BitComet, and Deluge clients.

After the DHT was adopted, a "private" flag&#;– analogous to the broadcast flag&#;– was unofficially introduced, telling clients to restrict the use of decentralized tracking regardless of the user's desires.[27] The flag is intentionally placed in the info section of the torrent so that it cannot be disabled or removed without changing the identity of the torrent. The purpose of the flag is to prevent torrents from being shared with clients that do not have access to the tracker. The flag was requested for inclusion in the official specification in August , but has not been accepted yet.[28] Clients that have ignored the private flag were banned by many trackers, discouraging the practice.[29]

Anonymity[edit]

BitTorrent does not, on its own, offer its users anonymity. One can usually see the IP addresses of all peers in a swarm in one's own client or firewall program. This may expose users with insecure systems to attacks.[21] In some countries, copyright organizations scrape lists of peers, and send takedown notices to the internet service provider of users participating in the swarms of files that are under copyright. In some jurisdictions, copyright holders may launch lawsuits against uploaders or downloaders for infringement, and police may arrest suspects in such cases.

Various means have been used to promote anonymity. For example, the BitTorrent client Tribler makes available a Tor-like onion network, optionally routing transfers through other peers to obscure which client has requested the data. The exit node would be visible to peers in a swarm, but the Tribler organization provides exit nodes. One advantage of Tribler is that clearnet torrents can be downloaded with only a small decrease in download speed from one "hop" of routing.

i2p provides a similar anonymity layer although in that case, one can only download torrents that have been uploaded to the i2p network.[30] The bittorrent client Vuze allows users who are not concerned about anonymity to take clearnet torrents, and make them available on the i2p network.[31]

Most BitTorrent clients are not designed to provide anonymity when used over Tor,[32] and there is some debate as to whether torrenting over Tor acts as a drag on the network.[33]

Private torrent trackers are usually invitation only, and require members to participate in uploading, but have the downside of a single centralized point of failure. Oink's Pink Palace and pachasnack.com are examples of private trackers which have been shut down.

Seedbox services download the torrent files first to the company's servers, allowing the user to direct download the file from there.[34][35] One's IP address would be visible to the Seedbox provider, but not to third parties.

Virtual private networks encrypt transfers, and substitute a different IP address for the user's, so that anyone monitoring a torrent swarm will only see that address.

Adoption[edit]

A growing number of individuals and organizations are using BitTorrent to distribute their own or licensed works (e.g. indie bands distributing digital files of their new songs). Independent adopters report that without using BitTorrent technology, and its dramatically reduced demands on their private networking hardware and bandwidth, they could not afford to distribute their files.[36]

Some uses of BitTorrent for file sharing may violate laws in some jurisdictions (see legal issues section).

Film, video, and music[edit]

  • BitTorrent Inc. has obtained a number of licenses from Hollywood studios for distributing popular content from their websites.[citation needed]
  • Sub Pop Records releases tracks and videos via BitTorrent Inc.[37] to distribute its + albums. Babyshambles and The Libertines (both bands associated with Pete Doherty) have extensively used torrents to distribute hundreds of demos and live videos. US industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails frequently distributes albums via BitTorrent.
  • Podcasting software is starting to integrate BitTorrent to help podcasters deal with the download demands of their MP3 "radio" programs. Specifically, Juice and Miro (formerly known as Democracy Player) support automatic processing of .torrent files from RSS feeds. Similarly, some BitTorrent clients, such as μTorrent, are able to process web feeds and automatically download content found within them.
  • DGM Live purchases are provided via BitTorrent.[38]
  • VODO, a service which distributes "free-to-share" movies and TV shows via BitTorrent.[39][40][41]

Broadcasters[edit]

Personal works[edit]

  • The Amazon S3 "Simple Storage Service" is a scalable Internet-based storage service with a simple web service interface, equipped with built-in BitTorrent support.[47]

Software[edit]

  • Blizzard Entertainment uses BitTorrent (via a proprietary client called the "Blizzard Downloader", associated with the Blizzard "BattleNet" network) to distribute content and patches for Diablo III, StarCraft II and World of Warcraft, including the games themselves.[48]
  • Wargaming uses BitTorrent in their popular titles World of Tanks, World of Warships and World of Warplanes to distribute game updates.[49]
  • CCP Games, maker of the space Simulation MMORPG Eve Online, has announced that a new launcher will be released that is based on BitTorrent.[50][51]
  • Many software games, especially those whose large size makes them difficult to host due to bandwidth limits, extremely frequent downloads, and unpredictable changes in network traffic, will distribute instead a specialized, stripped down bittorrent client with enough functionality to download the game from the other running clients and the primary server (which is maintained in case not enough peers are available).
  • Many major open source and free software projects encourage BitTorrent as well as conventional downloads of their products (via HTTP, FTP etc.) to increase availability and to reduce load on their own servers, especially when dealing with larger files.[52]

Government[edit]

Education[edit]

Others[edit]

As of [update], BitTorrent had million users and a greater share of network bandwidth than Netflix and Hulu combined.[66][67] In early , AT&T estimates that BitTorrent represents 20% of all broadband traffic.[68]

Routers that use network address translation (NAT) must maintain tables of source and destination IP addresses and ports. Typical home routers are limited to about table entries[citation needed] while some more expensive routers have larger table capacities. BitTorrent frequently contacts 20–30 servers per second, rapidly filling the NAT tables. This is a known cause of some home routers ceasing to work correctly.[69][70]

Technologies built on BitTorrent[edit]

The BitTorrent protocol is still under development and may therefore still acquire new features and other enhancements such as improved efficiency.

Distributed trackers[edit]

On 2 May , Azureus (now known as Vuze) was released,[71] introducing support for "trackerless" torrents through a system called the "distributed database." This system is a Distributed hash table implementation which allows the client to use torrents that do not have a working BitTorrent tracker. Instead just bootstrapping server is used (pachasnack.com, pachasnack.com or pachasnack.com[72][73]). The following month, BitTorrent, Inc. released version of the Mainline BitTorrent client, which supported an alternative DHT implementation (popularly known as "Mainline DHT", outlined in a draft on their website) that is incompatible with that of Azureus. In , measurement showed concurrent users of Mainline DHT to be from 10 million to 25&#;million, with a daily churn of at least 10&#;million.[74]

Current versions of the official BitTorrent client, μTorrent, BitComet, Transmission and BitSpirit all share compatibility with Mainline DHT. Both DHT implementations are based on Kademlia.[75] As of version , Azureus also supports Mainline DHT in addition to its own distributed database through use of an optional application plugin.[76] This potentially allows the Azureus/Vuze client to reach a bigger swarm.

Another idea that has surfaced in Vuze is that of virtual torrents. This idea is based on the distributed tracker approach and is used to describe some web resource. Currently, it is used for instant messaging. It is implemented using a special messaging protocol and requires an appropriate plugin. Anatomic P2P is another approach, which uses a decentralized network of nodes that route traffic to dynamic trackers. Most BitTorrent clients also use Peer exchange (PEX) to gather peers in addition to trackers and DHT. Peer exchange checks with known peers to see if they know of any other peers. With the release of Vuze, all major BitTorrent clients now have compatible peer exchange.

Web seeding[edit]

Web "seeding" was implemented in as the ability of BitTorrent clients to download torrent pieces from an HTTP source in addition to the "swarm". The advantage of this feature is that a website may distribute a torrent for a particular file or batch of files and make those files available for download from that same web server; this can simplify long-term seeding and load balancing through the use of existing, cheap, web hosting setups. In theory, this would make using BitTorrent almost as easy for a web publisher as creating a direct HTTP download. In addition, it would allow the "web seed" to be disabled if the swarm becomes too popular while still allowing the file to be readily available. This feature has two distinct specifications, both of which are supported by Libtorrent and the 26+ clients that use it.

Hash web seeding[edit]

The first was created by John "TheSHAD0W" Hoffman, who created BitTornado.[77][78] This first specification requires running a web service that serves content by info-hash and piece number, rather than filename.

HTTP web seeding[edit]

The other specification is created by GetRight authors and can rely on a basic HTTP download space (using byte serving).[79][80]

Other[edit]

In September , a new service named Burnbit was launched which generates a torrent from any URL using webseeding.[81] There are server-side solutions that provide initial seeding of the file from the web server via standard BitTorrent protocol and when the number of external seeders reach a limit, they stop serving the file from the original source.[82]

RSS feeds[edit]

A technique called broadcatching combines RSS feeds with the BitTorrent protocol to create a content delivery system, further simplifying and automating content distribution. Steve Gillmor explained the concept in a column for Ziff-Davis in December [83] The discussion spread quickly among bloggers (Ernest Miller,[84]Chris Pirillo, etc.). In an article entitled Broadcatching with BitTorrent, Scott Raymond explained:

I want RSS feeds of BitTorrent files. A script would periodically check the feed for new items, and use them to start the download. Then, I could find a trusted publisher of an Alias RSS feed, and "subscribe" to all new episodes of the show, which would then start downloading automatically&#;– like the "season pass" feature of the TiVo.

The RSS feed will track the content, while BitTorrent ensures content integrity with cryptographichashing of all data, so feed subscribers will receive uncorrupted content. One of the first and popular software clients (free and open source) for broadcatching is Miro. Other free software clients such as PenguinTV and KatchTV are also now supporting broadcatching. The BitTorrent web-service MoveDigital added the ability to make torrents available to any web application capable of parsing XML through its standard REST-based interface in ,[86] though this has since been discontinued. Additionally, Torrenthut is developing a similar torrent API that will provide the same features, and help bring the torrent community to Web standards. Alongside this release is a first PHP application built using the API called PEP, which will parse any Really Simple Syndication (RSS ) feed and automatically create and seed a torrent for each enclosure found in that feed.[87]

Throttling and encryption[edit]

Since BitTorrent makes up a large proportion of total traffic, some ISPs have chosen to "throttle" (slow down) BitTorrent transfers. For this reason, methods have been developed to disguise BitTorrent traffic in an attempt to thwart these efforts.[88] Protocol header encrypt (PHE) and Message stream encryption/Protocol encryption (MSE/PE) are features of some BitTorrent clients that attempt to make BitTorrent hard to detect and throttle. As of November , Vuze, Bitcomet, KTorrent, Transmission, Deluge, μTorrent, MooPolice, Halite, qBittorrent, rTorrent, and the latest official BitTorrent client (v6) support MSE/PE encryption.

In August , Comcast was preventing BitTorrent seeding by monitoring and interfering with the communication between peers. Protection against these efforts is provided by proxying the client-tracker traffic via an encrypted tunnel to a point outside of the Comcast network.[89] In , Comcast called a "truce" with BitTorrent, Inc. with the intention of shaping traffic in a protocol-agnostic manner.[90] Questions about the ethics and legality of Comcast's behavior have led to renewed debate about net neutrality in the United States.[91] In general, although encryption can make it difficult to determine what is being shared, BitTorrent is vulnerable to traffic analysis. Thus, even with MSE/PE, it may be possible for an ISP to recognize BitTorrent and also to determine that a system is no longer downloading but only uploading data, and terminate its connection by injecting TCP RST (reset flag) packets.

Multitracker[edit]

Another unofficial feature is an extension to the BitTorrent metadata format proposed by John Hoffman[92] and implemented by several indexing websites. It allows the use of multiple trackers per file, so if one tracker fails, others can continue to support file transfer. It is implemented in several clients, such as BitComet, BitTornado, BitTorrent, KTorrent, Transmission, Deluge, μTorrent, rtorrent, Vuze, and Frostwire. Trackers are placed in groups, or tiers, with a tracker randomly chosen from the top tier and tried, moving to the next tier if all the trackers in the top tier fail.

Torrents with multiple trackers can decrease the time it takes to download a file, but also have a few consequences:

  • Poorly implemented[93] clients may contact multiple trackers, leading to more overhead-traffic.
  • Torrents from closed trackers suddenly become downloadable by non-members, as they can connect to a seed via an open tracker.

Implementations[edit]

The BitTorrent specification is free to use and many clients are open source, so BitTorrent clients have been created for all common operating systems using a variety of programming languages. The official BitTorrent client, μTorrent, qBittorrent, Transmission, Vuze, and BitComet are some of the most popular clients.[94][95][96][97]

Some BitTorrent implementations such as MLDonkey and Torrentflux are designed to run as servers. For example, this can be used to centralize file sharing on a single dedicated server which users share access to on the network.[98] Server-oriented BitTorrent implementations can also be hosted by hosting providers at co-located facilities with high bandwidth Internet connectivity (e.g., a datacenter) which can provide dramatic speed benefits over using BitTorrent from a regular home broadband connection. Services such as ImageShack can download files on BitTorrent for the user, allowing them to download the entire file by HTTP once it is finished.

The Operaweb browser supports BitTorrent,[99] as does Wyzo. BitLet allows users to download Torrents directly from their browser using a Java applet. An increasing number of hardware devices are being made to support BitTorrent. These include routers and NAS devices containing BitTorrent-capable firmware like OpenWrt. Proprietary versions of the protocol which implement DRM, encryption, and authentication are found within managed clients such as Pando.

Development[edit]

An unimplemented (as of February&#;[update]) unofficial feature is Similarity Enhanced Transfer (SET), a technique for improving the speed at which peer-to-peer file sharing and content distribution systems can share data. SET, proposed by researchers Pucha, Andersen, and Kaminsky, works by spotting chunks of identical data in files that are an exact or near match to the one needed and transferring these data to the client if the "exact" data are not present. Their experiments suggested that SET will help greatly with less popular files, but not as much for popular data, where many peers are already downloading it.[] Andersen believes that this technique could be immediately used by developers with the BitTorrent file sharing system.[]

As of December&#;[update], BitTorrent, Inc. is working with Oversi on new Policy Discover Protocols that query the ISP for capabilities and network architecture information. Oversi's ISP hosted NetEnhancer box is designed to "improve peer selection" by helping peers find local nodes, improving download speeds while reducing the loads into and out of the ISP's network.[]

Legal issues[edit]

Although the protocol itself is legal,[] problems stem from using the protocol to traffic copyright infringing works, since BitTorrent is often used to download otherwise paid content, such as movies and videogames. There has been much controversy over the use of BitTorrent trackers. BitTorrent metafiles themselves do not store file contents. Whether the publishers of BitTorrent metafiles violate copyrights by linking to copyrighted works without the authorization of copyright holders is controversial. Various jurisdictions have pursued legal action against websites that host BitTorrent trackers.

High-profile examples include the closing of pachasnack.com, TorrentSpy, LokiTorrent, BTJunkie, Mininova, Oink's Pink Palace and pachasnack.com The Pirate Bay torrent website, formed by a Swedish group, is noted for the "legal" section of its website in which letters and replies on the subject of alleged copyright infringements are publicly displayed. On 31 May , The Pirate Bay's servers in Sweden were raided by Swedish police on allegations by the MPAA of copyright infringement;[] however, the tracker was up and running again three days later. In the study used to value NBC Universal in its merger with Comcast, Envisional examined the 10, torrent swarms managed by PublicBT which had the most active downloaders. After excluding pornographic and unidentifiable content, it was found that only one swarm offered legitimate content.[]

In the United States, more than , lawsuits have been filed for copyright infringement on BitTorrent since [] On 30 April , the UK High Court ordered five ISPs to block BitTorrent search engine The Pirate Bay.[] (see List of websites blocked in the United Kingdom)

Security problems[edit]

One concern is the UDP flood attack. BitTorrent implementations often use μTP for their communication. To achieve high bandwidths, the underlying protocol used is UDP, which allows spoofing of source addresses of internet traffic. It has been possible to carry out Denial-of-service attacks in a P2P lab environment, where users running BitTorrent clients act as amplifiers for an attack at another service.[] However this is not always an effective attack because ISPs can check if the source address is correct.

Challenges[edit]

"Leeches", are those users who download more than they share. As BitTorrent is a collaborative distributed platform, there is a section of the community that wants solutions to punish and discourage such behaviour.[]

Malware[edit]

Several studies on BitTorrent have indicated that there exist files, containing malware, available for download via BitTorrent. In particular, one small sample[] indicated that 18% of all executable programs available for download contained malware. Another study[] claims that as much as % of BitTorrent downloads contain zero-day malware, and that BitTorrent was used as the distribution mechanism for 47% of all zero-day malware they have found.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Источник: [pachasnack.com]
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