Calling and messaging facilities Archives

Calling and messaging facilities Archives

calling and messaging facilities Archives

calling and messaging facilities Archives

Archives and Records Management Resources

by Maygene F. Daniels (1984)
Note on Web Version

Archival terminology is a flexible group of common words that have acquired specialized meanings for archivists. Since World War II, archivists worldwide have devoted considerable attention to the definition of these words. In 1964, an international lexicon of archival terminology was published.(1) This dictionary in 6 languages, the work of a committee of the International Council on Archives, provides a basis for international comparison of archival terms.

The Society of American Archivists published its own glossary of archival terms in 1974 after several years of debate, drafting, and review.(2) Definitions in the SAA glossary have been widely accepted as the basis for discussion of archival terminology in North America and have been the starting point for subsequent efforts to define American archival terms. Since publication of the SAA glossary, however, many archivists have concluded that some of its definitions require revision and that additional terms should be included. Teachers of archives administration and authors of basic archival texts, consequently, have developed their own glossaries that revise, update, or expand the 1974 work. At present, no single glossary of archival terms can be considered definitive.(3)

The most frequently used archival terms are those that describe documentary materials and archival institutions. Documentary materials can be characterized as "records," "personal papers," or "artificial collections" on the basis of who created and maintained the documents and for what purpose.(4) Records are documents in any form that are made or received and maintained by an organization, whether government agency, church, business, university, or other institution. An organization's records typically might include copies of letters, memoranda, accounts, reports, photographs, and other materials produced by the organization as well as incoming letters, reports received, memoranda from other offices, and other documents maintained in the organization's files.

In contrast to records, personal papers are created or received and maintained by an individual or family in the process of living. Diaries, news clippings, personal financial records, photographs, correspondence received, and copies of letters written and sent by the individual or family are among the materials typically found in personal papers.

Traditionally, records and personal papers have been considered distinct entities, each with clearly definable characteristics. In the twentieth century, the physical qualities of records and personal papers have become more alike, however, and archivists increasingly have emphasized the similarities between these materials rather than their differences.(5) In particular, today's archivists recognize that both records and personal papers are bodies of interrelated materials that have been brought together because of their function or use. Archivists respect and seek to maintain the established relationships between individual items in groups of records and in personal papers.(6)

Artificial collections are fundamentally different both from records and from personal papers. Instead of being natural accumulations, artificial collections are composed of individual items purposefully assembled from a variety of sources. Because artificial collections comprise documents from many sources, archivists may elect to change established relationships in order to improve access or control.

Archival institutions can be termed either "archives" or "manuscript repositories" depending on the types of documentary material they contain and how it is acquired. "Archives" traditionally have been those institutions responsible for the long-term care of the historical records of the organization or institution of which they are a part.(7) Many archives are public institutions responsible for the records of continuing value of a government or governmental body. The National Archives of the United States and the Public Archives of Canada are examples of public archives at the national level. Public archives also may be found at every other level of government, including state or province, county, and municipal levels. Nonpublic or nongovernmental archives care for the records of any other institution or organization of which they are a part. Church archives, for example, administer the historical records of a religious denomination or congregation. University archives are responsible for records of the university's administration. Archives acquire historical material through the action of law or through internal institutional regulation or policy.

"Manuscript repositories" are archival institutions primarily responsible for personal papers, artificial collections, and records of other organizations. Manuscript repositories purchase or seek donations of materials to which they have no necessary right. They therefore must document the transfer of materials by deed of gift or by other legal contract.

The distinctions between archives and manuscript repositories can be precisely stated, yet few archival institutions are simply "archives" or "manuscript repositories." Most archives hold some personal papers or records of other organizations. Even the National Archives of the United States is responsible for a small group of donated personal papers and nongovernment records. Similarly, many manuscript repositories serve as the archives of their own institutions. In recognition of this, the term "archives" gradually has acquired broader meaning for some archivists and is used by them in reference to any archival institution. This trend has been accelerated by the use of the word "archives" or "archive" in the names of some institutions that in the past might have been termed "manuscript repositories."(8)

Contemporary archival terminology provides a useful and necessary means of specialized communication within the archival profession. Its terms can be precise enough to preserve important distinctions among types of materials and archival institutions, and yet its usage also can be sufficiently flexible to reflect the changing nature of record materials and developments in the administration of archival institutions. As the archival profession grows and matures and as new technologies and records media affect the practice of archives administration, both the precision and flexibility of archival terminology will prove to be of continuing benefit to archivists.


This glossary of commonly used archival terms is based in part on and draws several definitions from "A Basic Glossary for Archivists, Manuscript Curators, and Records Managers," compiled by Frank B. Evans, Donald F. Harrison, and Edwin A. Thompson (The American Archivist 37 [July 1974]: 415-433). The glossary includes most important archival terms with specialized meanings. Terms that are adequately described in dictionaries; technical manuscript, records management, and preservation terms; and terms relating to automated data processing are not included.

The archival term for authority to obtain information from or to perform research in archival materials.
(v.) To transfer physical and legal custody of documentary materials to an archival institution.
(n.) Materials transferred to an archival institution in a single accessioning action.
An addition to an accession.
The process of identifying and acquiring, by donation or purchase, historical materials from sources outside the archival institution.
The value of records for the ongoing business of the agency of records creation or its successor in function.
The process of determining whether documentary materials have sufficient value to warrant acquisition by an archival institution.
An institution holding legal and physical custody of noncurrent documentary materials determined to have permanent or continuing value. Archives and manuscript repositories are archival institutions.
The value of documentary materials for continuing preservation in an archival institution.
(1) The noncurrent records of an organization or institution preserved because of their continuing value.
(2) The agency responsible for selecting, preserving, and making available records determined to have permanent or continuing value.
(3) The building in which an archival institution is located.
The professional management of an archival institution through application of archival principles and techniques.
The professional staff member within an archival institution responsible for any aspect of the selection, preservation, or use of archival materials.
The archival process of organizing documentary materials in accordance with archival principles.
A policy established by an archival institution concerning subject areas, time periods, and formats of materials to seek for donation or purchase.
(1) An artificial accumulation of materials devoted to a single theme, person, event, or type of document acquired from a variety of sources.
(2) In a manuscript repository, a body of historical materials relating to an individual, family, or organization.
The process of building an institution's holdings of historical materials through acquisition activities.
(1) In contemporary U.S. usage, the archival principle that to guarantee archival integrity, archival materials should either be retained by the creating organization or transferred directly to an archival institution.
(2) In British usage, the principle that noncurrent records must be retained by the creating organization or its successor in function to be considered archival.
A standard measure of the quantity of archival materials on the basis of the volume of space they occupy.
A legal document accomplishing donation of documentary materials to an archival institution through transfer of title.
A legal document providing for deposit of historical materials in physical custody of an archival institution while legal title to the materials is retained by the donor.
The process of establishing intellectual control over holdings of an archival institution through preparation of finding aids.
The final action that puts into effect the results of an appraisal decision for a series of records. Transfer to an archival institution, transfer to a records center, and destruction are among possible dispositions.
Instructions governing retention and disposition of current and noncurrent recurring records series of an organization or agency. Also called a RECORDS CONTROL SCHEDULE.
Recorded information regardless of form or medium with three basic elements: base, impression, and message.
Historical materials transferred to an archival institution through a donor's gift rather than in accordance with law or regulation.
The value of records or papers as documentation of the operations and activities of the records-creating organization, institution, or individual.
The activity of identifying, negotiating for, and securing historical materials for an archival institution.
A description from any source that provides information about the contents and nature of documentary materials.
All documentary materials in the custody of an archival institution including both accessioned and deposited materials.
The value of records or papers for information they contain on persons, places, subjects, and things other than the operation of the organization that created them or the activities of the individual or family that created them.
The archival term for those qualities and characteristics of permanently valuable records that make the records in their original physical form the only archivally acceptable form of the records.
Ownership of title to documentary materials.
The concept that records pass through a continuum of identifiable phases from the point of their creation, through their active maintenance and use, to their final disposition by destruction or transfer to an archival institution or records center.
A standard measure of the quantity of archival materials on the basis of shelf space occupied or the length of drawers in vertical files or the thickness of horizontally filed materials.
Records created for processing by a computer.
A handwritten or typed document, including a letterpress or carbon copy, or any document annotated in handwriting or typescript.
The professional staff member within a manuscript repository responsible for any aspect of the selection, preservation, or use of documentary materials.
An archival institution primarily responsible for personal papers.
Material that is not record in character because it comprises solely library or other reference items, because it duplicates records and provides no additional evidence or information, or because its qualities are nondocumentary.
The archival principle that records should be maintained in the order in which they were placed by the organization, individual, or family that created them.
A natural accumulation of documents created or accumulated by an individual or family belonging to him or her and subject to his or her disposition. Also referred to as MANUSCRIPTS.
The values of records for the activities for which they were created or received.
All steps taken in an archival repository to prepare documentary materials for access and reference use.
(1) The archival principle that records created or received by one recordskeeping unit should not be intermixed with those of any other.
(2) Information on the chain of ownership and custody of particular records.
The copy of a document which is designated for official retention in files of the administrative unit that is principally responsible for production, implementation, or dissemination of the document.
A body of organizationally related records established on the basis of provenance with particular regard for the complexity and volume of the records and the administrative history of the record-creating institution or organization.
All recorded information, regardless of media or characteristics, made or received and maintained by an organization or institution. [The Federal Records Act definition of "records" can be found at: 44 USC Sec. 3301.]
A records storage facility established to provide efficient storage of inactive records. Legal title to records deposited in a records center is retained by the originating agency.
The profession concerned with achieving economy and efficiency in the creation, use, and maintenance of current records.
Nonaccessioned items maintained by an archival institution solely for reference use.
The archival function of providing information about or from holdings of an archival institution, making holdings available to researchers, and providing copies, reproductions, or loans of holdings.
The process of surveying documentary materials in an archival institution to determine whether the materials may be open for access by researchers or must be restricted in accordance with law, a donor's requirements, or an institution's regulations.
(v.) To establish retention periods for current records and provide for their proper disposition at the end of active use.
The values of records to users other than the agency of record creation or its successors.
A body of file units or documents arranged in accordance with a unified filing system or maintained by the records creator as a unit because of some relationship arising out of their creation, receipt, or use.
A body of related records within a record group, usually consisting of the records of a primary subordinate administrative unit or of records series related chronologically, functionally, or by subject.

Endnotes for "Introduction"

1. Elsevier's Lexicon of Archive Terminology. Compiled in French, English, German, Spanish, Italian, and Dutch by a committee of the International Council on Archives. New York: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1964.Return to text.

2. "A Basic Glossary for Archivists, Manuscript Curators, and Records Managers," compiled by Frank B. Evans, Donald F. Harrison, and Edwin A. Thompson. Edited by William L. Rofes. The American Archivist 37 (July 1974): 415-433.Return to text.

3. The glossary included in this Reader was developed for the Modern Archives Institute. It is included here to provide assistance for readers who are unfamiliar with archival terminology.Return to text.

4. Documentary materials also may be characterized on the basis of their various physical forms: textual, audiovisual, machine-readable, cartographic, printed and others. The term "manuscript" is used for any handwritten or typed document, including press or carbon copy, or any document annotated in handwriting or typescript. In common usage, the term "manuscripts" also often is used as a synonym for "personal papers."Return to text.

5. The term "records" now is even used occasionally as a general term for both records and personal papers. The Presidential Records Act of 1980 codified this usage by employing the term "personal records" to describe strictly personal and private or political papers of the President.Return to text.

6. Although some groups of personal papers and, less frequently, some series of records may have no perceptible order, if any order does exist it is likely to be meaningful and archivists seek to protect it. If no internal order is perceptible, the archivist's concern for protecting established relationships does not come into play.Return to text.

7. Records in an archival institution also are called "archives." A building in which an archival institution is located also is often referred to as an "archives." "Archives" is a collective noun.Return to text.

8. The Smithsonian Institution's Archives of American Art and the Dada Archive of the University of Iowa are both examples of this phenomenon.Return to text.

Note: This web version was prepared in 1999, based on:
Maygene F. Daniels, Introduction to Archival Terminology, Published in A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice (National Archives Trust Fund Board, 1984): 336-342.
This version may differ from the printed version.

See Also:
Источник: []
, calling and messaging facilities Archives


Shelved record boxes of an archive.

An archive is an accumulation of historical records – in any media – or the physical facility in which they are located.[1] Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of that person or organization. Professional archivists and historians generally understand archives to be records that have been naturally and necessarily generated as a product of regular legal, commercial, administrative, or social activities. They have been metaphorically defined as "the secretions of an organism",[2] and are distinguished from documents that have been consciously written or created to communicate a particular message to posterity.

In general, archives consist of records that have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical, or evidentiary value. Archival records are normally unpublished and almost always unique, unlike books or magazines of which many identical copies may exist. This means that archives are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, although archival collections can often be found within library buildings.[3]

A person who works in archives is called an archivist. The study and practice of organizing, preserving, and providing access to information and materials in archives is called archival science. The physical place of storage can be referred to as an archive (more usual in the United Kingdom), an archives (more usual in the United States), or a repository.[4][5]

The computing use of the term "archive" should not be confused with the record-keeping meaning of the term.


The English word archive/ˈɑːrkaɪv/ is derived from the French archives (plural), and in turn from Latinarchīum or archīvum,[6] the romanized form of the Greekἀρχεῖον (arkheion). The Greek term originally referred to the home or dwelling of the Archon, a ruler or chief magistrate, in which important official state documents were filed and interpreted; from there its meaning broadened to encompass such concepts as "town hall" and "public records".[7] The root of the Greek word is ἀρχή (arkhē), meaning among other things "magistracy, office, government",[8] and derived from the verb ἄρχω (arkhō), meaning "to begin, rule, govern" (also the root of English words such as "anarchy" and "monarchy").[9]

The word archive is first attested in English in the early 17th century, and the word archivist in the mid 18th century, although in these periods both terms are usually found used only in reference to foreign institutions and personnel. Not until the late 19th century did they begin to be used at all widely in domestic contexts.[5][10]

The adjective formed from archive is archival.


The practice of keeping official documents is very old. Archaeologists have discovered archives of hundreds (and sometime thousands) of clay tablets going back to the third and second millennia BC in sites like Ebla, Mari, Amarna, Hattusas, Ugarit, and Pylos. These discoveries have been fundamental to know ancient alphabets, languages, literature, and politics.

Archives were well developed by the ancient Chinese, the ancient Greeks, and ancient Romans (who called them Tabularia). However, they have been lost, since documents written on materials like papyrus and paper deteriorated at a faster pace, unlike their stone tablet counterparts. Archives of churches, kingdoms, and cities from the Middle Ages survive and have often kept their official status uninterruptedly until now. They are the basic tool for historical research on these ages.[11]

England after 1066 developed archives and archival research methods.[12] The Swiss developed archival systems after 1450.[13]

Modern archival thinking has many roots from the French Revolution. The French National Archives, who possess perhaps the largest archival collection in the world, with records going as far back as 625 A.D., were created in 1790 during the Revolution from various government, religious, and private archives seized by the revolutionaries.[14]

Users and institutions[edit]

Historians, genealogists, lawyers, demographers, filmmakers, and others conduct research at archives.[15] The research process at each archive is unique, and depends upon the institution that houses the archive. While there are many kinds of archives, the most recent census of archivists in the United States identifies five major types: academic, business (for profit), government, non-profit, and other.[16] There are also four main areas of inquiry involved with archives: material technologies, organizing principles, geographic locations, and tangled embodiments of humans and non-humans. These areas help to further categorize what kind of archive is being created.


Archives in colleges, universities, and other educational facilities are typically housed within a library, and duties may be carried out by an archivist.[17][page needed] Academic archives exist to preserve institutional history and serve the academic community.[18] An academic archive may contain materials such as the institution's administrative records, personal and professional papers of former professors and presidents, memorabilia related to school organizations and activities, and items the academic library wishes to remain in a closed-stack setting, such as rare books or thesis copies. Access to the collections in these archives is usually by prior appointment only; some have posted hours for making inquiries. Users of academic archives can be undergraduates, graduate students, faculty and staff, scholarly researchers, and the general public. Many academic archives work closely with alumni relations departments or other campus institutions to help raise funds for their library or school.[19] Qualifications for employment may vary. Entry-level positions usually require an undergraduate diploma, but typically archivists hold graduate degrees in history or library science (preferably certified by a body such as the American Library Association).[20] Subject-area specialization becomes more common in higher ranking positions.[21]

Business (for profit)[edit]

Archives located in for-profit institutions are usually those owned by a private business. Examples of prominent business archives in the United States include Coca-Cola (which also owns the separate museum World of Coca-Cola), Procter and Gamble, Motorola Heritage Services and Archives, and Levi Strauss & Co. These corporate archives maintain historic documents and items related to the history and administration of their companies.[22] Business archives serve the purpose of helping their corporations maintain control over their brand by retaining memories of the company's past. Especially in business archives, records management is separate from the historic aspect of archives. Workers in these types of archives may have any combination of training and degrees, from either a history or library background. These archives are typically not open to the public and only used by workers of the owner company, though some allow approved visitors by appointment.[23] Business archives are concerned with maintaining the integrity of their company, and are therefore selective of how their materials may be used.[24]


Government archives include those maintained by local and state government as well as those maintained by the national (or federal) government. Anyone may use a government archive, and frequent users include reporters, genealogists, writers, historians, students, and people seeking information on the history of their home or region. Many government archives are open to the public and no appointment is required to visit.[25]

In the United States, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) maintains central archival facilities in the District of Columbia and College Park, Maryland, with regional facilities distributed throughout the United States. Some city or local governments may have repositories, but their organization and accessibility varies widely.[26] Similar to the library profession, certification requirements and education also varies widely, from state to state.[27] Professional associations themselves encourage the need to professionalize.[28] NARA offers the Certificate of Federal Records Management Training Program for professional development.[29] The majority of state and local archives staff hold a bachelor's degree[30]—increasingly repositories list advanced degrees (e.g. MA, MLS/MLIS, PhD) and certifications as a position requirement or preference.[20]

In the UK, the National Archives (formerly known as the Public Record Office) is the government archive for England and Wales. The English Heritage Archive is the public archive of English Heritage. The National Archives of Scotland, located in Edinburgh, serve that country while the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland in Belfast is the government archive for Northern Ireland.

A network of county record offices and other local authority-run archives exists throughout England, Wales, and Scotland and holds many important collections, including local government, landed estates, church, and business records. Many archives have contributed catalogues to the national "Access to Archives" programme and online searching across collections is possible.

In France, the French Archives Administration (Service interministériel des Archives de France) in the Ministry of Culture manages the National Archives (Archives nationales), which possess 406 km. (252 miles) of archives as of 2010[update] (the total length of occupied shelves put next to each other), with original records going as far back as A.D. 625, as well as the departmental archives (archives départementales), located in the préfectures of each of the 100 départements of France, which possess 2,297 km. (1,427 miles) of archives (as of 2010[update]), and also the local city archives, about 600 in total, which possess 456 km. (283,4 miles) of archives (as of 2010[update]).[31] Put together, the total volume of archives under the supervision of the French Archives Administration is the largest in the world.

In India, the National Archives (NAI) are located in New Delhi.

In Taiwan, the National Archives Administration are located in Taipei.[32]

Most intergovernmental organisations keep their own historical archives. However, a number of European organisations, including the European Commission, choose to deposit their archives with the European University Institute in Florence.[33]


A prominent Church Archives is the Vatican Secret Archive.[34]Archdioceses, dioceses, and parishes also have archives in the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches. Very important are monastery archives, because of their antiquity, like the ones of Monte Cassino, Saint Gall, and Fulda. The records in these archives include manuscripts, papal records, local Church records, photographs, oral histories, audiovisual materials, and architectural drawings.

Most Protestant denominations have archives as well, including the Presbyterian U.S.A Historical Society,[35] The Moravian Church Archives,[36] The Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives,[37] the United Methodist Archives and History Center of the United Methodist Church,[38] and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).[39]


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(October 2011)


Non-profit archives include those in historical societies, not-for-profit businesses such as hospitals, and the repositories within foundations. Non-profit archives are typically set up with private funds from donors to preserve the papers and history of specific persons or places. Often these institutions rely on grant funding from the government as well as the private funds.[40] Depending on the funds available, non-profit archives may be as small as the historical society in a rural town to as big as a state historical society that rivals a government archives. Users of this type of archive may vary as much as the institutions that hold them. Employees of non-profit archives may be professional archivists, para-professionals, or volunteers, as the education required for a position at a non-profit archive varies with the demands of the collection's user base.[41]

Web archiving[edit]

Web archiving is the process of collecting portions of the World Wide Web and ensuring the collection is preserved in an archive, such as an archive site, for future researchers, historians, and the public. Due to the massive size of the Web, web archivists typically employ web crawlers for automated collection.

Similarly, software code and documentation can be archived on the web, as with the example of CPAN.


Some archives defy categorization. There are tribal archives within the Native American nations in North America, and there are archives that exist within the papers of private individuals. Many museums keep archives in order to prove the provenance of their pieces. Any institution or persons wishing to keep their significant papers in an organized fashion that employs the most basic principles of archival science may have an archive. In the 2004 census of archivists taken in the United States, 2.7% of archivists were employed in institutions that defied categorization. This was a separate figure from the 1.3% that identified themselves as self-employed.[42]

Another type of archive is the Public Secrets project.[43] This is an interactive testimonial, in which women incarcerated in the California State Prison System describe what happened to them. The archive's mission is to gather stories from women who want to express themselves, and want their stories heard. This collection includes transcripts and an audio recording of the women telling their stories.

The archives of an individual may include letters, papers, photographs, computer files, scrapbooks, financial records, or diaries created or collected by the individual – regardless of media or format. The archives of an organization (such as a corporation or government) tend to contain other types of records, such as administrative files, business records, memos, official correspondence, and meeting minutes.

The Arctic World Archive is a commercially-run facility for data preservation located in the Svalbard archipelago, Norway, which contains data of historical and cultural interest from several countries, as well as all of American multinational company GitHub's open source code. The data is kept on reels of specially developed film in a steel vault buried deep beneath the permafrost, with the data storage medium expected to last for 500 to 1000 years.[44]


The International Council on Archives (ICA) has developed a number of standards on archival description including the General International Standard Archival Description ISAD(G).[45] ISAD(G) is meant to be used in conjunction with national standards or as a basis for nations to build their own standards.[46] In the United States, ISAD(G) is implemented through Describing Archives: A Content Standard, popularly known as "DACS".[47] In Canada, ISAD(G) is implemented through the Council of Archives[48] as the Rules for Archival Description, also known as "RAD".[49]

ISO is currently working on standards.[50][51]


The cultural property stored in archives is threatened by natural disasters, wars or other emergencies in many countries. International partners for archives are UNESCO and Blue Shield International in accordance with the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property from 1954 and its 2nd Protocol from 1999. From a national and international perspective, there are many collaborations between archives and local Blue Shield organizations to ensure the sustainable existence of cultural property storage facilities. In addition to working with the United Nations peacekeeping in the event of war, the protection of the archives requires the creation of "no strike lists", the linking of civil and military structures and the training of local personnel.[52][53][54][55]

See also[edit]


  1. ^"Glossary of Library and Internet Terms". University of South Dakota Library. Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2007.
  2. ^Galbraith, V. H. (1948). Studies in the Public Records. London. p. 3.
  3. ^"A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology". Society of American Archivists. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  4. ^"Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology". Society of American Archivists. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  5. ^ ab"archive, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  6. ^archīumArchived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus
  7. ^ἀρχεῖονArchived 9 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  8. ^ἀρχήArchived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  9. ^ἄρχωArchived 18 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
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  11. ^Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. p. 7. ISBN .
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  13. ^Randolph Head, "Knowing Like a State: The Transformation of Political Knowledge in Swiss Archives, 1450–1770", Journal of Modern History, 75 (2003), pp. 745–82. online
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  15. ^"What Are Archives?". National Museum of American History. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  16. ^Walch, Victoria Irons (2006). "Archival Census and Education Needs Survey in the United States: Part 1: Introduction"(PDF). The American Archivist. 69 (2): 294–309. Archived(PDF) from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2007.
  17. ^Maher, William J. (1992). The Management of College and University Archives. Metuchen, New Jersey: Society of American Archivists and The Scarecrow Press. OCLC 25630256.
  18. ^"Welcome to University Archives and Records Management". Kennesaw State University Archives. Archived from the original on 14 April 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
  19. ^"Guidelines for College and University Archives". Society of American Archivists. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  20. ^ abMichelle Riggs, "The Correlation of Archival Education and Job Requirements Since the Advent of Encoded Archival Description," Journal of Archival Organization 3, no. 1 (January 2005): 61–79. (accessed 23 July 2014).
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  26. ^"Cyndi's List - United States - U.S. State Level Records Repositories". Cyndi's List of Genealogy Sites on the Internet. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
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  28. ^Bastian, Jeannette, and Elizabeth Yakel. "'Are We There Yet?' Professionalism and the Development of an Archival Core Curriculum in the United States." Journal of Education for Library & Information Science 46, no. 2 (Spring2005 2005): 95–114. (accessed 23 July 2014)
  29. ^"FAQs About NARA's Certificate of Federal Records Management Training Program". Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  30. ^"Set 1: Employment, A*CENSUS Data Tabulated by State". Society of American Archivists. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  31. ^(in French)Chiffres clés 2011. Statistiques de la Culture, Paris, La Documentation française, 2011.
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